Village Studies-Janapadapadanam

  Settlement Studies II.

                                                             

                                                                   Need of new Perspectives in Kerala studies

                                                               Methodology Summary

                                                                                           Toponymy and Calicut Studies Legacy of   NiLa                                                                                     Settlement Study- Janapdapadanam                                                         

                                                                                   Village studies and urban studies

 

 

        Toponymical observation on the HABITAT. Local History Study :First part of the paper publihed in the E-Journel Vijnanacinthamony ,26-7-2007Pattambi A brief toponymical analysisof ARAMBRAM village in the erstwhile Eranadu Taluk of Malabar district based on British settlement records of 1902 AD: Click maps,reports,papers link Special features of Toponyms and Anthroponyms of Kerala in brief. Revenue divisions of Kerala are: District, taiuk, Amsom Village, Desam Vaillage and Fields in Desom villages. Kerala village of dispersed type. Hence each field in a village carries a name. The field name has three parts. Specific, generic and a general generic. The general generic indicate whether the land is Garden or Wet. The first generic reflects topography, geography, geology, nature of soil etc. Specific reflects caste, religions, structures in the field, occupation and all aspects related to settlements. The field names originated in the medieval period, and even earlier, when settlements spread over the land. They are carried through records till this period with oputr much changesand hence the indication of names are immensly valuable in the study of cultural history. Anthroponyms also reflect some specialities. The names of higher caste reflect caste name at the end. Muslim and christian personnel names have their own patterns. Hindu names without caste names also reflect certain features by which identification of caste, occupation etc are possible.Anthropnyms are also carried through ages with out much changes.

This brief analysys is based on field name specifics, generics, personnel names, caste names, density of generics, their distribution patterns, distribution of settlements and their relation to habitat. Cultural geography maps / historical geography maps etc are given here. They are self explanatory. Data related to the analysis are avoided here for brevity of the matter.

A) Revenue details of the village ARAMBRAM.

Arambram is a Desom village, where 57 fields are distributed in 331.77 acres of land. 57 fields (Field No’s 1- 57 in Map1) are divided in to 127 subfields. The nature of land as per revenue records is 3.23% wet land; 46.8% garden land; 23.5% Unoccuppied dry landand 26.1 % occuppied dry land. This reveals the major feature of the land. Paddy cultivation is very low whereas Garden land cultivation is high in the village.

B) Geography, Topography, Nature of the Soil, Cultivation

Distribution of details in the map are based on toponyms. A few specifics and all generics are taken into consideration. Total generics: 127:                                          

Generics indicative of wet land' Generics indicative of Garden

Generics indicative of undulating nature Generics indicative of fertile paddy fields Generics indicative of hills

Generics indicative of hillocks

Generics indicative of low lands and depth

24 47 55 15 5 3 7

Explanation ofspecifics and generics distributed in Map Topography, Geography, Bio system, Economic geography, Economic geology etc. of comparatively early period are indicated in field name generics and specifics.

D) Nature of habitat and settlements Fields Nos. 30,11,27,5,42,51 indicate paddy: fertile paddy fields in general - Vayal

E) Paddy Cultivation:Kantom, nilam and vayal indicative of paddy fields are generally close to water sources.

F) Water sources: Fields 6,14,12,11,5,43,42,48,33,34 and 55 refelected "Pula" (river) Chalu (rivulet or man made Canal) Kuli (depth) tatom (low land) aal ( Water sources) Kulam(tank or pond) for growing fish etc. Field Nos.12, 5 and 55 refele€t river courses ere paddy cultivation is extensive. A fish growing natural or artificial tank is in field No II. close to the river. Vettuvans are residing close to it in field 13, who were traditional salt panning groups.

A few specifices in field 36 and 50 refelect marshy, salty low lands, where paddy cultivation exist even though it is unfertile.

G) Dry, rocky, dusty and un fertile areas ..There Elre unfertile arable land in fields 13. 53, 32, 40, 41, 9, 7 and 15. These are comparatively extensive fields where parra (rocky) and dusty areas exist. Field 32,43, 13, 15 and 53 are such type. Fields 7 and 4 are highly rocky where Para (Rock) refelected in many parts. Mala or hills exist in field 7, 9 and 49. Rocky nature in the area adjoining to these hills are important because fields NO.9 and 7 refelect availability of gold dust, or sand or gold content in rocks. Field names with' pon' (Gold) as specific and nam'es indicative of gold mines( Pon Kuli) are there. Taccan ( Gold smiths) Cettl ( Traders and goldsmiths) had residences in felds7 , 9 , 39 and 26 close to the mining area. Kaatu (forest or uncultivated fields with bushes or uninhabited fields) and Tottom (large estates or extencive garden land of cash crops) are reflected adjacent to river in field 13 and close to hills in 9 and 15. Hillocks are there in fields23,27 and 52.

The central part of the village, is thus almost elevated with table lands having hills and hillocks. Thus north en , eastern ,western and southern areas are comparatively plain fields and fields with slopes. The lower fields are close to rivers, rivulets where paddy grows. All other plains are garden lands where cocoanuts, gingilly ( spices) grow largely. These plains are reflected in generics like parampu, kanti etc.

It is significant that uur genericsare distributed in areas where water and fertile paddy fields are available. uur means areas of settled cultivation and they are the earlist humen settlements. They are seen in fields 6 and 5. The tribals, aborginals or lower castes of Dravidian nature lived in such areas, where their worshping shrin8s by name' Kaavu'

exists. Field No.2, 3,51,15 and 14 are significant in this aspect . These fields are highly fertile as the uur is prefixed with 'kari' indicating high fertility of the soil. The area seems to be occupied by Mannan,a tribel group, since vast areas are settled by them. Field no.5, 42, 40, 46 show these settlements. Paracheri (Field No.7, 39) on the top of the hills, also show the tribal settlements of very early period.

H) indications of pre historic settlements:

There are two field names which reflect prehistoric burial grounds. Kota or umbrella stones are mentioned in toponyms in field no. 54 close to river bank .These are to be assumed as the earliest habitation on the northern riverbanks. Vettuva groups are seen settled in fieldno. 13 close to river banks where salt panning and fishing possible. Settled cultivation and habitation are also seen close to these fields in 15, 14, 2, 3 51, 5 and 6. A Shrine of Tribal deity Pottan and worshiping centre Kotta are seen reflected in 2,3 and 15 and another shrine is reflected in 15 and 14. These are indicative of emergence of large scale settlements of earlier type.

Settlements of this early stages are seen closely related to the nature of the habitat, and resources available.

i) Primary stage of settlements, and land ownerships

Growth of settlements in the next stages are also reflected in toponyms of the area.

The area seems to have highly dense settlements of Mannan, a . tribal group. They perform ritual dances etc in temples and shrines. It is significant that ownership of lands goes to Mannans in large scale. Fields no's 47,41,40,39,3, 51 and 46 are owned by Pallikkottu Mannan family. Another early settlers of lower castes are iiluvas and they also have land ownership in the area

The pre historic stage and settled agriculture and habitation related to early tribes and aborigines reflected in the area combined together give the situation of primary habitation of the village.

J) Later Stages of habitation and growth of settlements:

1). Toponyms reflect Jaina migration and their settlements: Field No's 56,47, 4, 11,13 reflect aryan (Jain or Buddihistic groups) Cenan (Jaina) Cenanmarteru (Street of Jainas) etc. Probably these groups migrated to these areas due to the availability of forest resources, spices, gold dust etc for their trade. These settlements superimpose and surround the settlements of tribal groups and their shrines in field 2,3, and 4.

Jains and Buddihists migrated to South India from northern parts of the sub continent and spread in Kerala in the begning of Christian era.

2). Migration of Brahmins from north India also took place in the early centuries of christian era. Their migration is also reflected in toponyms. "Ampalam" (temple) infields 4 and 5 where Kavu exixted. The land ownership goes to Brahmin sub groups Moosad of Arambram illam (House Name). Village name had its origin after this Brahmin family. Thus the early settlements of the area were known as Karippur, a village of high fertility . After the emergance of Brahmins in the area, they established their temple and converted the early shrines to temple of Puranic deity. Uur in field No. 40 is Perur, which means settlement of great importance Land holdings of Brahmin Moosad, and Nayars, who are upper calss Hindus are very extensive                                                                                                

Original  Microtoponomy Maps of a village is prepared in 1978 by N M Nampoothiri .Here Starts  proper village study in kerala.1.Study of  Topography and  Geography  2.Resources of the area 3.Growth of Settlements 4.Urbanisation.

1979 ൽഎന്റെപഠനത്തിനാണു സെറ്റിൽമെന്റുരേഖകൽആദ്യമായി കേരളപഠ്നത്തിനു ഉപയോഗിച്ചതു 1973 ൽതന്നെ നാമപഠനം ആരമ്ഭിച്ചതുമാൺഇതെല്ലാം മറച്ചുവച്ചാണു  കേരളത്തിലെ ദേശങ്ങളുടെ പഠനം1987-1988 ൽഡോ എം ആറ് രാഘ വാര്യറ് തന്റെ പലചരിത്ത്ര പഠനങ്ങളുംഅവതരിപ്പിച്ചിട്ടുള്ളത്.എല്ലാ പഠന ധാറ്മ്മികതകളുംഅദ്ദേഹമ്്ലംഘിക്കുകയുംചെയ്യുന്നു.എന്റെ പഠനങ്ങൾ1980ൾതന്നെ പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിച്ചിടുണ്ട്.ഏറ്റ്വും നല്ല്ഉദാഹരണം കോഴിക്കോടു കോറ്പ റ്േഷന്റെ 1980-1981 ലെ 60 പേജുള്ള ആമുഖം കാണുക

This approach is developed in the study of history from Micro-Toponomy. It is based on the British settlement Records.Dr M R Raghavavarier has nothing to do with this methodology or Source materials.He used the working papers of  the Thesis 'A Study of place names in the Calicut   District 1988 University of Calicut". The worwas started in 1973.In 1978 Micro maping started.this maps and allmaps were used by him to study village structure of Kerala.But he never acknoledged this.His research works are to be verified to list out this Plagiurism

പറന്പിന്റെയും വയലിന്റെയും പേരുകൽആണു വളപ്പു പേരുകൾ.അവയുടെ റവന്യൂ നമ്പരുകൾആണു ഇവിടെ നൽകിയിട്ടുള്ളത്.ഫീൽഡുനെയിംസ് എന്നു പറയുന്നു.                                                                 

 

                                                         TOPONOMICALSTUDIES - PART I

                                                                   1 CALICUT DISTRICT

                                                                   2  THE LEGACY OF NILA

                                                                   3  Village studies and urban studies

                                                                   4   Methodology Summary

                                                                                                          I

Sample of  First Toponomical maps ( all typs ) like Field name maps(Beypore,Nagaram etc), in Micro Toponomy ,Village Micro Toponomy ,Taluk-Area  Microtoponomy(Calicut Taluk,Vaaniyamkulam ,Poottuurkkaavu thaTTakam)) and Regional Microtoponomy(Venad,Eranaat,nedunganaad) drawn for the first time in IndianToponomy based on settlement Records Early land records) are given here.   

Need of new perspectives in Kerala studies

Toponyms of Calicut was my research subject .The period of my research was 1974-1988.It was supported with my own finding 'The Calicut grandhavaris'(Zamorins Palace records )These records were verified in 1978 and transferred to Vallathol Vidyapeedom Sukapuram legaly. Calicut studies is based on Toponymy, Grandhavaris and field work data...Toponomycal analysis was based on Revenue settlement records,Ceerikkal accounts, and Paimashy records etc.The work was Micro Toponymy because it was based on Field names or plot names given in the British settlement records . All these source materials and their interdisciplinary use were for the first time in Cultural studies. Later in 1997 The topic The Legacy of Nila river valley was taken up as a continuation of Calicut Studies It lead to the preparation of Cultural history of vilages.Vaaniyamkulam Vijnaniiyayam is first of its kind inSample of  First Toponomical maps in all typs  like fields in Micro Toponomy ,Village Micro Toponomy, Area maps of Microtoponomy drawn for the first time in Indian Toponomy based on settlement Records or otherwise are given here. India .The work is being continued and many area studies are brought out. Now it is time to publish a paper on the new methodology

 conceived in the study of Village history, Area history, Regional history etc. It is seen that some scholars are publishing the ideas put forward by me without acknowledging the works done by me in these fields for the first time. The best examples are some of the Toponymycal works and observations of Dr. M .R.Raghavavarior and Panchayth Vijnaniiyam of Vaaniyamkulam published by The Kerala Council for Historical Research, Trivandrum in 2002. Village study under the Legacy of Nila started in1995 march Vaaniyamkulam study started in 1997.But KCHR is silent about it.KCHR is silent about the Calicut Village Studies too.Dr Varrior in his Kerala history 1990 or in his Endowment lecture in(see details in notes)1993 is silent about works.

Toponymycal identification of ‘Feroke fort area’ built by Tippu Sultan in Calicut was my first area study. Various Type of areas were later analysed for Toponymycal studies which was done2-12-1973 It is discussed in part II of this Monograph .       MAP 1

Through many surveys of area studies of primary nature based on various source materials were prepared .Other scholars did not use these sources hitherto. Toponomical data of settlement records etc and the associated evidences are very important examples. The use of such sources was inter disciplinary. Quantitative analyses, Maping of the area and preparation of frequency table of toponymycal data etc were also the new methodological changes brought through the toponymycal studies of Calicut Such studies were only surface level works and segmental studies.

The intention was to Correlate and corroborate other data and to bring out an Organic Study from Segmental studies -A New Perspective to Studies in Kerala Culture. Many researchers and Historians brought out Works under the title of History of Kerala. But the contents of the books are totally related to Political History only

Sample of  First Toponomical maps in all typs  like fields in Micro Toponomy ,Village Micro Toponomy, Area maps of Microtoponomy drawn for the first time in Indian Toponomy based on settlement Records or otherwise are given here.MAP2

ആറ്റുവെപ്പു,വെപ്പു,മുക്കം,മൊക്കം,കോഴി.എന്നീ മൈക്രോ -അതിസൂക്ഷ്മ- നാമഘടകങ്ങഓരോദേശത്തും എങ്ങ്നെ വിന്യസിക്കപ്പെട്ടിരിക്കുന്നു എന്നു കാണൂക.ചെറിയ തുണ്ടുഭൂമികളിഅടയാളങ്ങകാണാം.ഇതിനിന്നു വേണം ആപദങ്ങളുടെഅറ്ഥ്ം ക്രുത്ത്യമായികണ്ടത്തേണ്ടത്.കോഴി എന്ന പദം ജലാശയ സമീപത്താണു ചിതറിക്കാണുന്നതു ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുക.

ഉണ്ട്ടി,കോഴി,,ചരിത്ത്രാതീതപുരാസ്ഥാനങ്ങഎന്നിവ ഒരുതാലൂക്കിഎങ്ങ്നെയാണെന്നു താലൂക്കു മാപ്പികാണാം.ഇവ

ഓരോ ദേശത്തിന്റെയും ഓരോവിധസ്വ്ഭാവങ്ങനിറ്ദ്ധാരണം ചെയ്യാസഹായിക്കും.പേരുകളുടെആദ്യ ഘടകങ്ങളും ഇങ്ങനെ വിന്യാസ മാപ്പുകളിരേഖ്പെടുതത്ുന്നത്ു പ്രറ്ധാനമാണു.ആകെ ഒരുതാലൂക്കിലെ പൊതുസ്വഭാവങ്ങഅറ്ിയാം.  ഓരു വളപ്പിന്റെ യും അവിടെയുള്ള വീടിന്റെയും സമസ്ത വിഷയങ്ങളും പ്ഠിച്ചാകുടുംബപഠനമായി.ഈ കുടുംബങ്ങ്കണ്ണിയിണക്കി പഠിച്ചാദേശപഠനമായി.അതോടൊപ്പംഓരോദേശതിന്റ്െയും ജൈവ രൂപ പഠനം നടത്തുക.            ദേശത്തിന്റെ സ്വഭാവമറിഞ്ഞാദേശ പഠനമായി.ദെശങ്ങചേറ്ന്ന താലൂക്കാകുമ്പോപ്രദേശപഠനമായി.ഓരോ പ്രദേശ്ങ്ങ-ഏരിയാ- ഒറ്റ്ക്കൊറ്റ്ക്കു പഠിച്ചുകൂട്ടിച്ചേത്താമേഖ്ലാ-റീജിയണപഠനമായി.ഇങ്ങ്നെ റീജിയണപഠനമാണു പഴയ നാടുകളെ- അതായതു വേണാ‍്ട് മുതലയവ യെ     അറിയാനടത്ത്േണ്ടതു.ഇത്തരമൊരു പദ്ധതി 2008തന്നെ ആവിഴ്കരിച്ചു നടപ്പാക്കാശ്രമിച്ചിരുന്നു.വിശദാംശങ്ങ് പിന്നീടു നകുന്നുണ്ടു.

കേരളതിആദ്യഘട്ടതിആദിമവറ്ഗങ്ങളുടെ കേന്ദ്രിത ഗ്രാമങ്ങളായിരുന്നു എന്നു കാണാം. ഇവ വികേന്ദ്രീക്രുതരൂപത്തിആയി മാറി. എന്നഇന്നതെ ദേശാതിറ്ത്തികമാറ്റുകയും പലദേശ്ങ്ങളെയും     ഒന്നിച്ചു ചേറ്ത്തു നോക്കുകയും ചെയ്താതുടച്ചയായി കേന്ദ്രിത ഗ്രാമങ്ങളെകാണാം.ദേശക്കൂട്ടമായ മാപ്പുകകാണു

 Periods and Topics discussed in these works prove the limitations of the available studies in Kerala culture.

1 1100BCto500BC-Pre historic period. Most important evidences are Burials

2.From 300 BC to300A D-Sangham Period Rule of 1st Cheras.                                                                                                                                        

3 From 300AD to 800 A D--- Dark period. Not analysed by historians because there are no direct evidences

4 During A D 800--- There was Brahmin migration. (According to the historians this was the root cause of all social evils in Kerala)

5 From 800AD to1100AD--- 2nd Chera (Kulasekharas of Cranganur) Period

6 From 1100D to 1498 AD --- Dark Period, Origin of Swaruupams: Venad, Perumpadappu, Nediyiruppu, Koolathunaatu.

 

7 From 1500AD to 1792AD---Britsh Period                                                         

 

It was Prof Elamkulam who made the first attempt to write about major issues related to Kerala history .But he never attempted to address dark periods. According to him there were no direct evidences to analyse the history of dark periods .He never thought of common people, settlements, markets ,network of Sacred groves ,family systems ,customs and manners and such direct and indirect evidences. Such evidences were a part of Comprehensive historiography. Dr Hermann Gundert made an attempt to study "malayaala Rajya Caritram" in 1844 .A D. Elamkulam failed to give the history of the period of Swaroopams also even though Grandhavaries were enormous.It was because he neglected the uTayavars and other lower and local administrative factors of the Kulasekhara rulers It was not analysed by later historians like Dr M G S Narayanan too. Every body was misleading by Elamkulams distorted theory of Brahmin influence. According to Elamkulam content of Kerala history were Political leaderships and their moral supporters -The Brahmins and their Nampoothiri Grama settlements. The uTaiyavars were transformed to Swaroopams after the downfall of Kulasekheras. It was not a problem of Kerala History put forward by Elamkulam and hence there were no analysis of it is done by historians .So we lost the discussions of the Evolutionary changes took place during the Kulasekhara period or of the later Swaroopa administration period Actually we neglected the

It is clear that History of the people is not even touched in these topics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

So a new investigation was started based on toponymycal data as Janapdapadanam or Settlement studies. It was taken up to understand The Social History and Cultural History of Malayala Naatu. The investigations based onTOPONOMY

Toponomy was gradually developed through many stages .The  Stages  are

(i) Calicut Toponomy SEE MAPS 1-15 For Micro Toponomy

(ii) The Legacy of Nila                                                                                                                                                                MAP 3

 (iii) Cultural Geography and Habitat of Bharathappula river valley.

(iv) Village studies.SEE MAPS  9-22   ARAAMBRAM VILLAGE STUDIES

 (v) Area studies.

(vi) Regional studies

These studies are generally termed as Janapadanam or settlement studies. Research Papers of Serial Nos1 to 31(works)1 and a number of other papers and notes where

 

 

                                        II

Toponymy and Calicut Studies

The Toponymycal study of Calicut was taken up in 1974.The topic was "A study of Place names in the Calicut District: Calicut, South Wynad, Quilandy and Badagara Taluks" .Calicut DistrictCollector promoted the Research by issuing orders to all taluk officers to distribute The Questionnaire. Prepared by me (Maps, Reports, Papers 33 34,35)3                                                                                            MAP 4Maps given here are of primary nature. When the study of toponomy of Calicut started in 1977 based on settlement records (Maps, Reports,Papers: 36-62)4 (36-62 are pages of settlement records-aarraambram-ആരാംബറംദേശം 1892- sample pages are given here)each and every data was entered in village maps and taluk maps to see the distribution patterns of each cultural factor. By 1980 most of the toponymycal maps of Calicut (Various folders Maps ReportsPapers)5were prepared( See the Picasa map album link  Maps and Pictures in the Home page) these new maps are more than 300 in number. Toponymycal study and cultural analysis was completed based on the pattern study of maps, tables of various kind, and Quantitative analysis. No source material is available to study social or political situations of Kerala Villages or Areas or Regions. Our source materials are limited to some inscriptions, foreign notices and Tamil literary works. Again, we didn’t depended inter disciplinary approach in the study of cultural history. (Cultural Geography and habitat of Bharathappuzha /Nila river valley Works)6 Such a study was started with this study of toponomy in 1974(Maps, Reports,Papers 33, 34, 35)7 Thus an attempt was made to study the early stages of Evolution of Kerala Culture in a manner hitherto not considered. The map study and pattern study is of great help in analyzing Kerala Culture even from the Origin of Human habitation in the villages. There are certain limitations in the work. These are to be rectified by more scientific studies, sharing of knowledge method, participatory Research Etc. This was also done in1997 under the UGC project. Legacy of Bharathappuzha River valley The in-depth "HOME WORK" was done to understand the toponymycal sources and their dimensions in the Kerala context. It was done in many ways. At the beginning an exhaustive survey was taken up to evaluate the work done in India in the field of Toponomy. Surprisingly it is noticed that all aspects of human life are reflected in this source material. This evaluation report was submitted to PhD preliminary Examination in 1977.

When I discussed the matter with my Professor Dr. Ezhuthachan K.N., he directed me to verify land records of chieftaincies along with their other political recodes. He was very particular to find out The Zamorins record KOZHIKKODAN GRANDHAVARIKAL8. He gave me official support for it along with Dr C.P.Achuthan Unni. Iwas able to locate these records in 1978 and submitted a detailed report to him. Later I reported the matter to Dr M.G.S Narayanan, H/D, and Dept of History. University of Calicut (Zamorins Grandhavarikal)

Dr. Puthussery Ramachandran was my Examiner for Preliminary PhD. He gave very valuable suggestions to analyse the names. One of his Suggestions was to trace back the form of the name with the help of archival records. This was the initiative to examine early records kept in the Regional archives, Calicut.Dr. M.G.S. Narayanan took initiative to include me as member Place name society of India, Mysore. He gave me suggestions to study village names as well as other local names, and to use field survey in the work. Dr. Kesavan veluthat suggested Quantitative analysis in the study.

Another important turning point in the research was the verification of the archival materials of regional archives in Calicut.Sri P.K.Gopi, the present Registrar of Center for Heritage studies; Trippunithura was among the staff members of the archives in 1978. He pointed out to me that there are records of each village prepared by British administrators in 1890 with village maps. Even though there were field names in the land records of Granthavaris, the whole field names with details were not in such records. Mr. Gopi was opening an important Source material to study not only toponomy but also to the study SOCIALHISTORY and LOCAL HISTORY.He gave me the A-Registers or Settlement Registers for taking notes. It .was the beginning of a model study of history put forward by me (Maps,Reports,Papers 36-62)9

It was Sri N .N. Kakkad who suggested the analysis of the urban situations in each village. He directed me to do this at grass root level in the study of CALICUT PORT AND FORT areas. It was to be done on the basis of. Modern Urban studies of the western countries and Silpa texts (Vastu Sastra) of Indian tradition (Maps Reports,Papers)10 The analysis was done under his Guidance. The knowledge about the relation between Vastusastra and planning of villages, Capital cities, rajadhani, Towns, Dwelling places Etc are obtained to me even earlier when the famous writer Sri G.N.Pillai gave me a book for Review in Mathrubhoomi Weekly. It was a publication of the university of Kerala .The name of the work is TECHNICAL LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT. (1978). There is a study on Bhojas works by the famous Researcher Dr K.Raghavan."Bhojas Contribution to Sanskrit literature."(P144-170) I reviewed the book in the Mathrubhoomi Vol no38, Feb Dt: 10-16,Book no 57) the study deals with Samarankana sutra dhara and Yukti kalpa tharu of Bhoja. N N Kakkad gave me a vastu text of Sri Kooyithatta. In 1979.based on this have prepared a vast map of Calicut Ramadan and in in 1981 it was published the city directory of Calicut Corporation. This is the first of its kind in India11                        MAP5                                      

                                            III

Settlement Study or Janapdapadanam Village Study

Valappu ( Fields) TaRa/kara(Unit of a group of settlements of martial group) Kutikal (A unit of settlements of labour class) Desham(Villages) Pradesham/taTTakam (Groupoffillages/AreaTaluks) Naatu (Regions/Districts) UrbanComplexes/Groups-Groups of settlements based on Urban Factors

TOPONYMYCAL MAPS:(Maps , Reports,Papers)12

(MAPS are prepared on the basis of toponymycal evidences prepared N M Nampoothiri.Rf; Astudy of place names in Calicut Dist: Phd Thesis University of Calicut 1988 All Toponymical Maps are prepared for the first time in Kerala studies.

First map of a city VAASTHU(Silpa Sastra Map) ever prepared in India. (Phd)13Maps are prepared based on earliest available Revenue maps of  -1892.A D                                                       MAP 6

It needs exhaustive fieldwork. Analysis must be based on interdisciplinary principlesIt needs preparation of various kind of data distribution Maps, density and frequency tables. These are to be prepared on the basis Micro toponyms. Preparation of Charts, Geometrical figures, Etc are also necessary Kerala villages are dispersed in type-not centralized as other areas in the main land It is because each and every segment of the land is fertile and habitat ional. During the Land settlement of British period in 1892-1903 village settlement Registers are prepared including village maps. These Maps are to be used for preparing cultural registers of villages. Cultural factors can be consolidated from Micro Toponyms (Prefixes and Suffixes; distribution of them in village wise, Area wise, and Region wise) spread in the Settlement records (Maps, Reports,Papers 36-62)15

The name of each field is given in the S.Register with sub divisions. Each village supplies 1000-2000 toponyms, which covers all factors, related to culture. Since these are Revenue records, they are authentic and collected from villagers. Changes in the names will affect the property right. Thus maximum care is taken in the preparation of the toponyms and other details given in the registers. All details are entered in Malayalam and English. All these aspects are discussed in the " "Study of Place Names in the Calicut District"(PhD)16

Along with this, earlier records are also to be verified to find out changes of toponyms occurred during the years. Ceerickkal Records of Swaroopams, Temple Records, Land records of feudal families, Paimashi records of Tippu and Haider Ali Etc are also to be evaluated. (Various kinds of micro enquiries under other titles and themes in other pages of web site malabarandkeralastudies.net)

Toponymycal study is dealt in various angles in the works. Each segmental study is important to bring out an organic study Toponomy of Calicut, Palace records of Zamorins of Calicut, Legacy of Bharathappuzhza and model village study is interrelated.

IV      

Segmental studies

Micro segments-paRampu: vayal and valappu                                                                                                                              MAP8

Map study 1-15 and 9-22                                                                                                                                                                                                 MAP8

Various kinds of maps are available from various departments. All these maps are drawn accurately with scientific Scales. These maps can be used to prepare Toponomical Sketches, distribution maps o various cultural factors Etc Area/Regional /aerial maps give details of large areas. Aerial maps of port Calicut and extension of it to Araambrom near Kunnamagalam is an example. (Map ,Reports,Papers 24,63.)17 If we trace necessary items separately it will show distribution of various items marked in the map which can be effectively in an interdisciplinary way .The study thus become a pioneering one and gives details hither too un noticed. Eg. Maps of Mamankam Thattakam, Logans resource maps, Vaaniyamkulam maps, Kulamukku /Kuutallur maps, Poottuur kaavu maps, maps of Gama’s Route restructured based on Calicut Corporation map of large Scale The same map is used to identify Route of Royal Journey of Zamorins of Calicut in the city Calicut. These roads existed in 17th c: A.D as noticed in the Zamorins record. These routes are even now exists in Calicut City. It can be identified in the Revenue taluk maps, R.village maps Etc(Maps,Reports,Papers62-74)18

. Revenue village maps and Taluk maps are used for more micro studies. Taluk maps are used to distribute Toponymycal factors identified. Identification is made taking each village map and corresponding data separately. Details of archaeological data collected from a village based on toponomy are noted in the village map initially. All such maps are linked/used to form a distribution map of Archeological. Toponyms of pre- historic sites are seen in large scale in villages. These are 1st human habitation areas. These pre historic sites, toponyms signifying aboriginals distributed around these sites, uuR settlements around them and a worshipping center -Kaavu, Etc- Clearly bring out a SETTLEMENT of centralized pattern. It can be seen that large number of settlements are distributed in the Calicut Taluk (Maps,Reports,Papers)19. Later-urbanizing discussions can be done based on this basic pattern of HUMANHABITATION in the taluk. Distribution maps of various factors are prepared and they are given in Maps and reports. Compare thetribal map of Kerala based on other sources and the Toponymycal maps. (Maps, Reports,Papers 73,74,75)20

Village Settlement Records1890-1902                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MAP 10

British Settlement records were used for study of Toponomy and analysis of Kerala culture was used for the first time by this Researcher in the Calicut Studies .It lead to a turning point in the study of Kerala culture namely " JANAPADAPADANAM". 200villages wearer analyzed i Calicut Talk and it was correlated and corroborated by various toponymycal and historical evidences. Later the study is extended to NilaRiver valley Valley, Panchayath vijnaniiyam,Village culture,and Local history Studies.

Methodology to study Village Culture is based on toponomy. It is clearly evidenced from toponymycal studies in CALICUT that if studied scientifically, village cultural situations can be brought out. But study of a single village can give only incomplete ideas. Thus it has to be linked to next village in the dispersed settlement. Such segmental studies when scientifically incorporated to the theme CULTURAL EVOLUTION. It will bring out the organic study of an area or PRADEESHAM. It can be extended to a ‘Region’. Ultimately it will lead to the in-depth study of Kerala Culture. Thus study of a small village based on Toponomy and Basic record of settlements is JANAPADAPADANAM (Settlement studies). Settlement Records, which consist of all relevant cultural Signifiers. The problem of study of early period is always a difficult analysis. Here we are not analyzing a political history. Political history is only a segment of the Total Culture. Thus we have changed our concept of history. History/Culture is to be analyzed from the basic problem "Settlement". It is JANAPADAM.We have to identify the following cultural factors ·Topography/geography / Original settlements./ Tribes/aborigines/ distribution of Prehistoric evidences / Shrines and worshipping centers/ Tarawards/theirEconomic and political backgrounds /Migrations of Various Groups                

                                                       V                                                                                                            MAP 11                                                  MAP12                                                MAP13

Micro Segments Desha padanam                                                                                                                                                                      

Araamprom Village - Model study

1 Araamprom settlement Record is reproduced here( maps 36-62,9-23)

(Maps,Reports,Papers)21

In page number2 of the register field numbers 1 To 5 are important. They signify

(a) A stable settlement Uur-nampannuuR.and karippuuR

(b) A palli -an early shrine or /a stable settlement/ a kaavu or a worshipping center.

(c) A kotta kkal is mentioned. It may be a site of a female Deity/A Jaina relation may have been there.

(d) Another deity name is pottan. This deity has a kaavu or shrine.

 (e) Manna’s are seen living in the vicinity. They are aboriginals. They have there own shrines. Even today they are Velichappat's of shrines of Bhagavathi kaavu in many areas. In kulamukku/Kotikkunnu/Palliprom areas still this situation exist. Recent surveys proved it. These areas are on the banks of Bharathappuzha in Kuutallur.

(f) A toponyms ampalam is mentioned. It also represents a temple, in this particular context. It may also mean a place were traders come and take rest-Valiyampalam.

There was a stable settlement of uuR. There was early type of worshipping centers. There lived aboriginals like manna an Etc                                                     MAP 14

Probably there were Jain traders who were inland traders. The village is near to Kinaaluur, a near by Jana settlement connected to Thirukkunavay of Kodungalluur.The trade route crossing the village goes to Wynaad, an important center of Jainism.

Ampalam and kooTTa-both might had relation to this jaina .The later phase of Great Culture is reflected in the ownership of land and shrines, Thus Economic Geography and Anthroponomy help us to see the Evolution. Kaavu, ampalam, koottaEtc is seen owned by Hindu Upper class FAMILIES (This bring out the importance of Study of Family history.) like Katakamvelli moosad, Nampannuurazhakil Nair Meeppalli Atithirippad Etc. These are representatives of Great culture. Muslims in the same area own a few fields. Thus we see different layers of Evolution super imposing gradually the earliest settlement.

All these circumstantial evidences prove that there was a settlement of comparatively early period and it was gradually changing its heritage (Maps,Reports,Papers 9-23)22

Preparation of tables of toponyms is discussed in the Paper Toponyms of the names of fields taken for various tables are the Suffixes or Second part of it. Nampannuur can be Splitted in to NampannuuR were uur is the suffix. Such suffixes are put to quantitative analysis.

Their distribution pattern is also studied entering them in Maps Thus there are two types of Pattern Maps are to be prepared. 1. Maps of Prefixes 2.Maps of Suffixes .they are to be analysed preparing different patterns in maps/frequencies/density etc. All items are to be discussed here in detail.

VI

From Micro segment studies to Organic studyAraamprom is at the center of the CalicutTaluk, (Maps,Reports Papers24,63,69,70)23 close to the Kunnamangalam village. Villages are grouped on the basis of Distribution of Urban factors. There are complexes (Urban centers), Groups (Semi Urban centers) Clusters, single villages rural units Etc as per the urban principles. This classification of an area is made at the beginning itself for which each village is put in to analysis one by one. Villages with Common /Parallel situations in distribution of Urban Factors are Grouped together and put to Quantitative analysis. Details of historical, geographical and many other situations are collected from survey, field works and other evidences of various sources. Thus the work is Inter-disciplinary as well as Multi- disciplinary. Thorough knowledge of all factors, their inter-actions, parallel situations etc are all to be at hand of the researcher .He has to repeat his analysis. Draw maps of each and every factor. These type of repeated enquiry and primary analysis is a continuous process .As noted earlier the problem to decide the Jana presence or Tribal settlement situations and other situations are to be further enquired .So, this type of analysis is very heavy and complex .It is thus to be taken up in the way of Sharing of Knowledge and Participatory research .It is implemented through Oriental Research center SNGS College Pastrami, Under the UGC project Legacy of Nila. (1995-2001) More than two hundred villages under investigation of the taluk are around this village. Thus Araamprom is the Nucleus of the taluk with hinterland area of 200 villages in this hinterland area there are Urban complexes, Urban Groups, Storage centers Etc.Beyond this hinterland area there exist mainland and maritime space .The study gradually enters into Area study, Regional study etc. Here the village is only a rural unit and hence such studies need not be taken up. The village is apart of the Calicut Port and thus its hinterland.

Distribution of Micro segments:Maping                                                                                                                                                                                            Araamprom Maps                                                                                                                                                                                                                       MAP 15Distribution pattern maps are given.

(Maps and Reports: 9-23)24

Rectangular Callout:  Map: 9

Field map given in the revenue settlement record.

Details of the field numbers given in the map are entered in the record as noted before. Each field has a main number in the map .In the register each field has many sub divisions and each of them has separate field name. Apart from this in the last part of the register a special ownership of fields in table forms are given. There also micro- subdivisions are given. Each micro sub division has separate name.

Details of quality of soil, water sources such as river, ponds, canals, markets paddy fields, hills, hillocks, Structures such as temples shrines, ownership, type of ownership, devaswom, brahmaswom etc are all given in the register along with many other factors All these factors are to be entered into maps or and analyzed Tables are also to be prepared as noted before. In this map Field nos 1,2,3,4,47,50,51 are areas of 1st settlement. These fields are close and in the form of a cluster Area covered is large, which is mentioned in the Distribution maps.

Map: 10

In this map Micro fields are noted, since there is no boundary lines to these sub divisions. It is approximately marked with different colours. In Field No 4 there are four sub fields. Ampalam (temple or resting place) cenachan (field of cenachan-cenachan may an anthroponym or some thing related to Jaina s) ampalakkanTi puRaayi (Extension of ampalakkanti) karippuuru puraayi (uuR in the black soil-Fertile field-Stable settlement is close by; it is its puraayi or Extension) these types of micro toponyms are to be taken for analysis. There is a kooTTakkal-aplace near kooTTa. KooTTA may be protective measure of medieval period when kalari -kalam-and an attached bhagavathi worshipping shrine were distributed in the territory of the chieftaincy. There is a kaavu is seen close to the paddy field No5 the kaavu seems to be in the vicinity. the paddy field is taazhe or below. There is a paRacceri in Field no: 7, which denote the presence of paRaya settlement. It is a ceeri. Thus there is uuR along with ceeri. The ceeri is the settlement of occupational classes according to some scholars. Ampalakkanti (Subfld no: 4) denotes the location of later temple. However such a structure is not marked in the Remarks column of the Register. sub Fld no: 3of Fld no: 5 is uur-Karippuuru paRampu. This field is upper tableland. In subFld no: 2 there lives mannaan, an aboriginal group.

Map: 17

VaLappu studies To Desham studies

Araamprom Revenue records and pattern Maps

In this map microtoponymical data and Revenue data are entered for comparison. Field numbers 1 to 9 is only attempted. Field no: 1 is 8.76 acres. It belongs to KaTakamveLLi moosad.moosad is a temple community and hence a temple occupational class. There is a possibility to exist a temple in the vicinity .in other places even temples complexes are seen were temple occupational classes are seen settled close to the temple. It means that presence of a moosad, vaariar, maaraar etc-in general temple communities-suggest the presence of a worshipping center nearby and vice versa. Presence of chetty"s, taTTaan"s etc are also suggestive of such factors related to them and vice versa. The name of the house (name of the paRampu Field) is Vaazheel.It can be a linguistic variation of "vaakkeel". Sashay Valhi is a title of officers who administered temple properties in the medieval period. Thus this moose seems to be one among such authorities. Other studies related to property holdings prove that he was one of the major families there. Field no: 2 belonged to aaraamprom illom .It denotes the presence of a Brahmin Family. The area of the field is 9 .37 acres. In this field there exists Kaavu, kooTTa etc moolamannu of this field might have some relation to "origin" of the 1st settlement or presence of mother Goddess or even Swayambhu deity. Field no3 belonged to cave-In fled No: 4 there is a signifier of ampalam, ceNachaN, and two uuR"s. The names suggest that it is a fertile area for cultivation of paddy. The suggestion is already there that Brahmins select fertile valleys to settle. Temples are also distributed in such areas. Thus a temple or a Brahmin settlement suggests fertile areas and vice versa. In field no 5there lives the aboriginals-mannanmar. Ownership of the field goes to ampalam.their settlement is uuR. Thus uuR is a suggestive term for such original indigenous settlements. The area of the field is11.81acres.In field no 6 there is one our as already suggested this toponyms signifies the presence of tribal settlements or settlements of aboriginals. Here there is a large settlement of paRayaas. There is a large ceeri of this tribe. A ceTTi settlement is also in the field. The area of the field is 10.47 acres. The explanation is interred related. And it needs in-depth familiarity with many factors of human life

There are. Fields which are newly created, prepared, transformed or newly changed for some purpose.14.47 acres of land in field no 7 reflect this activity .it might be taken place sometime ago or currently. But changes are brought by settlers is a fact and when they make changes it s re-named. In this field name the "change" is reflected. It may be because somebody might have constructed anew hose as the name is puthiyaviittilàputhiyooTTil.puthiya=new, viiTTil=house. In the list of names given last of the register there are more sub divisions entered.there are two toponyms "puthukkudy". It means that new houses/huts were constructed to live. Thus puthiya viitil is a name reflecting the same feature. In general the situation shows that there are new settlements are coming up. KuTi in puthukkuTi means "New house".

In areas were temple, kaavu etc are seen (Field no1 to 9) migration is taken place. These are fertile upper tablelands and migration is natural. Here it is seen that migrated settlers are Muslims. They are generally maritime trade groups Mokkath Ussan aaji, tekkeel aalikkuTTy ammathu kuTTI, taravaTTattu kooyaamu thukuTTi, othayoottha amath, naalu kanTattila vasilal karrippuR assan are landowners of this area.

In the revenue map there are only 9 fields. They are land units. These 9 fields have Thirty-sub divisions .In the special list there are seven more sub divisions. Each micro division has its own name. More than forty prefixes suggestive of various cultural factors are there. In the someway there are many suffixes thus the cultural dimensions of the area can be discussed at grassroots level.

Map13/Map18

This distribution map gives Topographycal and geographical details. Suffixes are the major toponyms Distribution of vayal, and kantom are comparatively few. These are fertile paddy fields. Paramus or upper tablelands there are 15 acres of wetland. But Dry garden land is 156 acres. This is the same trend of topography obtained from distribution pattern of Toponyms also. Yellow coloured space in the map is tablelands. Toponym pula is seen on the border areas of the village. River course is marked in the border in Ramp also It is interesting to note that vayal or fertile paddy field is seen close to river course or they are in the areas where toponyms kuli, taTom, etc are distributed They denote low lands. Unfertile marshy areas, saline soil areas, sandy-rocky-areas etc are reflected in the toponyms. Large dry and forested areas denoted by kaaTu are seen.

First stable settlement is seen in field 42,49,51,4,3,1,2,5,41areas where fertile fields exist along with water facility. This area seems to be the top most tablelands in the village. The slope of the land is from all sides of the settlement towards north-south-west and east. Near to the settlement kunnu (hillocks) mala (Hills) are suggested by toponyms. It can be assumed that according to the Topographical and Geographical situations Resources of the village is Cash crops and natural resources. Area where paaRa (Rock) poRRa (waste land) is denoted, there is toponyms paazhuuR. It means the area is unfertile. The natural resources such as hard Laterite are available. A toponym "poN " suggestive of soil with gold content or precious stone is seen. The presence of Cetti"s, migration of Muslims etc shows the probability of local trade /exchange center. In the primary settlement area there are toponyms like Cami, Cenachan, acchan, etc which are supportive in assuming a Jaina migration in the area.

Map 20/ 19

Maps 18,19,20are the earliest (1977) Toponymical distribution maps of a village Prepared related to Kerala studies

In map 18 factors distributed are: -Muslim owned Land: Holdings of Major families, Mosques, Cheruvannuur devaswom lands, (this temple is in the village close to Araamprom) Large Ezhava holdings, Nair, kurup family moosad, Araambrom mana holdings, Nampoothiri holdings, and mannan family holdings.

Chettis, jains and paraya groups have no land holdings in the area even though their presence is noted in names. Anthroponomy and suggestions of other type of names are

Taken here for observations.

Map 21

1 uur-Indication of first settlement. F 41,5,6,

2 Vayal, kantom nilam-Fertile paddy fields. F 29,30,42,6,5,51,12.27,30

3 Puzha -River course.55, 5,12.

4 Caalu-Rivulet.F 12

5 Kuli, taale tatom, aalu-low lands.saline fields 14,16,11,43,42,49,55,

6 Kalli-Dry uncultivable barren land.paRRa-barren rocky field. F 53.

7 mala-Hill F13, 15.

8 Kunnu-Hllocks F 23,26.

9 paara-RockF 9,7.

10 kaaTu tottam paRampu, kanti, kuti, -vast upper tableland /garden large areas.

11 Lands.poN, poNkiraali, cempaRa, para, presence of sand/rock with gold content. F 16,9,40,41,43,32.

Map 22

This map is a distribution map of various factors. They are

1 Pottaakkaavu-Ashrine of tribal diety "poTTaN" .F2, 3,

2 PullooRakkaavu-a shrine of tribes on the sides of hills/hillocks F: 15,14.

3 KoTa-A term probably: koTa signifier of pre historic site is reflected in Field No: 54.This need not be such a site F 54

4 Peeruura-This toponym suggests periya or Large or old settlement. Usually peruur indicate a Siva temple in that place F: 40.

5 Karippuura-uur, a settlement in the fertile land. F: 5,6.

6 PutukkuTi-New settlements.9, 15.

7 Putucceeri-New settlements of occupational groups. Here the field name in full is ceNanmaaR kaNti. Hence it may be a settlement of Jainas.F 47,11,13,4,56.aarya/accan - A term probably related to Jains .F: 56,4,11,13,47.

8 PaRacceri-settlement of paRayas-aboriginal Group.F7, 39

9 MannanmaR-aboriginals F46, 42,4,5.

10 VeTTuvaN-Tribals engaged in salt panning settlement is near riverbank. F13.

11 Pon-area where golden soil or such precious things are available. Rocky, sand dust with gold content. F 40,32,43,9,16

12 taccan-Carpenter/gold smith. F40, 39.

13 CeTTI-Trders from Tamil/Telugu areas. They are trade groups. F: 7,26.

14 Matom-the field is close to ceNaNmar kanti and hence it shows a residential structure of Jains.F: 56.

15 Ampalam-Temple/resting place like vazhiyampalam. F4, 5.

16 MeeNkuzhi-Fish cultivating tank. F11-It is on the bank of river.

17 Aaryaaprom-Original name of aaraampRom illom, where Brahmins reside

VII

Araamprom study Sample Surveyreport

(Maps,Reports,Papers26,27,28,29:Talappilly Study 30,31,32 25,76)25

The note was prepared to suit a sample survey model. All the villages are to be scanned in this way and detailed notes are to be prepared as given here along the explanations to he maps. A number of maps can be prepared depending upon the interdisciplinary and multi disciplinary approach taken and the collection of various source materials. The primary condition s is 1.the researcher must have rigorous background of various branches of knowledge and local situations. Without it is impossible to interrelate different aspects of cultural evolution. 2.A thorough knowledge of indigenous cultural factors is also necessary. We have to inter relate these factors on the basis of other scientific observations on the same subject. considering local variations.3.Maping system along with quantitative analysis methods are a desideratum. Certain very important problems also can be analysed in the methodology discussed here A sample survey report on Talappilly taluk on the southern bank of Bharatha ppuzha is given here.

Key to open unintelligible toponyms

In toponymycal studies clear meanings of each words-suffix /prefix/name in full when suffix and prefix combined together. It is a" Study Of Language". Therefore we have to study contemporary forms of names and their earlier forms. Here we have take up the special situations in Kerala. (Maps ,Reports,Papers)26

1 The land records in Kerala are very important in this investigation. It is found that most of the land/field names are still exist without any linguistic variation. It is proved beyond doubt in the investigation of Stone inscriptions. (See inscriptions. Iraanikkalam study, urban centers of Venaad/Travancore, placenames in chera inscriptions Etc dealt with in various stages of the works)27 2 The names mentioned in literary works are still there without any variations. Family names and field names are there. Which are clearly identifiable. (Zamorins recods, Lokanar Kavu records, poyilam/unniyacci, unniyaati /sandesamsEtc)

3 In this circumstances most of the names and location of the field itself can be identi fied.changes occurred in the fields can be decided. Changes of the topography, geography etc can be noted. Change of ownership, accumulation of wealth etc are also can be studies Toponymical identification is Identification of comprehensive history and culture of Malayalans.It leads us to MalayaalaRajya charithram.

4 This is the methodology used in the thesis (Phd)28 There are many unintelligible toponyms. Here many types of pattern studies are to be used. Here it comes the need of Quantitative analysis and preparation of pattern maps We have already discussed how Evolution of Culture can be studied incorporating various aspects in toponymycal method of analysis. Here we have to see the method to get a scientific way to open unintelligibl suffixes/prefixes (Toponyms)(Maps,Reports,Papers 1to 9,75,76)29

VIII

Field wise distribution of suffixes and prefixes

Micro Toponyms-VaLappukal( MAPS 1to5)

Calicut taluk: - Villages: 180-Palali, 184-Cheruvati, 162-Mannur, 183-Atuvaat, 6-Kannankara, 76-Kayal, 38Nagaram, 181-Kalpalli, 182-Mavoor, 80-Katalunti, 35-Kommeeri, 41Natuvattom, 156-Manakkattu puram, 1-Elathuur, 3-Thalakkulathur, 43-Cheruvathuur, 69-Veliparampu, 154-Anayamkunnu, 129-Katavathhuur, 42-Beypore

As pointed out earlier distribution of the same suffix in different villages, in different Geographical Belts I, II, and III and generally in the taluk is to be analysed and meanings of the locked suffixes are to be unlocked through pattern studies for evolving a distribution pattern study scientifically. Sample study of some suffixes is given in map study and their analysis. (Maps ,Reports ,Papers1-9 Village wise and talukwise)30

The distribution pattern of vaipus in villages Cheruvannuur, Manuur, Atuvat, kayal, and kanankara, Palali, nagaram, and kalpally are given in a set of maps. Vaippu is a land newly formed or emerged from rivers; large lakes or sea is clear from the distribution of the suffix allover the taluk. The taluk is has a hilly track, a midland and a coastal low land. For the convenience of the study the divisions are given the titles GB I, GB II and GB III.respectively. Other suffixes are mukkam and mokkam.there is difference in the distribution. One term is seen used to denote Road +water course junction. Other is used to denote Road+Road junction. Katavattuur, Parampathkaavu, Veliparampu, Kommeeri, and Veppuur are the villages discussed. These villages are also distributed in the three belts.

uNTi and KaTaluNTi are the suffixes of much importance. It is said that Catalonia was the Toni, capital city or Early Cherisher the distribution of toponyms in villages Mucking (Banks of Akalappuzha in Quilandy taluk) Karannuur Kalpally near Chaliyar, Etc are given.kaTalunti paRampu is seen in these villages. So it is to be assumed that the name is a Hydronymic one and it is distributed widely in the Calicut and other taluks. Thus cannot be taken as the early capital of cheras. The locational peculiarity of the term is that these are in promontory sites.

Talukwise distribution shows that the terms uNti, Thunti Koozhi are of high density in GBIII.in Nagaram, ElathuR and on banks of Kallai River they are very dense.

Near the Kasbah and Nagaram villages ennappaTom, a suffix signifying "Natural Oil "is seen. Here it is noted by the British soil surveyors that there is oil content in the soil on the banks of Kallai River, close to its mouth.

Koozhi is a term highly distributed in the Taluk.There is more than 170 terms. Distributed in the taluk. All of them are in promontory areas and hydronimic in nature. Very peculiar nature of the term is seen in Villages Thalakkulathur Elathur Cheruvannur Nagaram and Beypore areas. This term later became the Name of a coastal strip of land. It came to be known as koozhikkooTu.

Taluk wise distribution of Cali caali etc is entered in (Maps,Reports,PapersN0:77-80)31 these are Toponyms signifying marshy areas. The distribution clearly shows that such large marshes are widely distributed in coastal Belt.

(Talappally Taluk studies There are two model maps and model Tables prepared based on village names. Deforestation, Problems related to water resources etc are discussed based on toponomy (Maps Reports,Papers25, 76, Talappilly Study 30, 31, 32 25, 76)32

Maps 1-5

കുറിപ്പുകഈ കുറിപ്പുകളുടെ വിശദമായ പറ്റ്ഠനംകോഴിക്കോട്ടെ സ്ഥലനാമങ്ങഎന്ന പി എച് ഡി പ്രബന്ധത്തിഉണ്ട്

I    ആറുദേശങ്ങളിലെ മൊക്കം-മുക്കംഎന്ന നാമമൂലകങ്ങവിന്യസിച്ചതു കാണുക.പാതക.പാതയുംപുഴയും,പുഴക,എന്നിങ്ങനെജങ്കഷനുകആണു ഈ നാമമൂലകം സൂചിപ്പ്ക്കുന്നതു..അതിനാഇത്തരം നാമമൂലകം കണ്ടാഅവിടെ  ചെരു ജങ്ക്ഷനുകഉന്റു എന്നോ ഉണ്ടായിരുംന്നുഎന്നോ വ്യ്ക്തമാണു.ഐനിയും അനേകം അറ്ഥതലങ്ങഇതിനുണ്ടു. ച്ഛിലപ്പോളവിറ്റെ ഒരുകോട്ട ,പീടിക ,തെരു,താവളം,അത്താണി,കച്ചവടം,കാവു ,ഇങ്ങനെ ആളുകവന്നുചേരുന്നസ്ഥാനങ്ങളാണു അവിടം എന്ന ആറ്ഥം കിട്ടുന്നു. എന്തുകൊണ്ടാണു ഇതു സംഭവിച്ചതെന്നാണുപിന്നെ നോക്കേണ്ടതു. വെറും ഒരു മുക്കല്ല ;അവിടെചെറുതോതിനഗരവക്കരണം നടക്കുന്നുഎന്നാണറ്ത്തം ആളുകചേരുന്ന സ്ഥലമാണു അതെന്നു വന്നാഅവിറ്ടെ ക്രയവിക്രയവുംനടക്കും. ഇങ്ങനെ സാമൂഹിക വസ്തുതകളിലേക്കു പതുക്കെ നാം നടന്നടുക്കും.ഇതു നാട്ടുചരിത്ര പഠനമായി മാറുന്നതു ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുക.ഇത്തരം മുക്കുകഎണ്ണതി  കൂടുന്നതനുസരിച്ചു ഒരു ദേശത്തിണ്ടെ സ്വഭാവം മാറുന്നതു വിവരിക്കേണ്ടി വരും.

II    കോഴി എന്ന നാമമൂലകം നോക്കുക.ഈവാക്കിന്റെ അഥം നമുക്കറിഞുകൂടാ.എന്നാഇതു  പുഴത്തീരത്തോ കടത്തീരത്തോമറ്റുതരത്തിലുള്ള ജല സാന്നിറ്ദ്ധ്യത്തിനടുത്തോ തള്ളിനിക്കുന്ന വളപ്പിനാണുകാണുന്നത്.അതിനാഇതു ഒരു ജലസ്പശവാചിയായ ടോപ്പോണിം ആണെന്നു വ്യക്തമാണു.അതിനാഇതു കോടിയുമാകാം.

ഇങ്ങനെ കോഴിക്കോട്ടു താലൂക്കിലെ നാമമൂലകങ്ങഓരോദേശത്തും എങ്ങനെ എന്ന ഡിസ്ട്രിബുഷടേബിളുകളൂമ്ം മാപ്പുകളും നിറ്മിച്ചാണുഅടിസ്ഥാന വസ്തുതകശ്േഖരിക്കേണ്ടതു.ഈ തെളിവുകമറ്റുവിധത്തികിട്ടുന്നതല്ല.ഇതാണു അടിസ്ഥാന തെ ളിവുക.ഇതിനു സഹായകമായ മറ്റു തേലിവുകപലവിഥ സവേകളിലുംമറ്റ്റും ലബ്ഭിക്കുന്നതു ഇതോടു ചേറ്ത്തു പഠിക്കുക.

MAPS 5-8

 

                                                                                                                           IX

                                       Micro Field Segments to Macro Area Segments:

                                                                                                               organic study

                                                                  AREA STUDY AND REGIONAL STUDY--1

(i) Village study was based on micro Toponymy But distribution of some Suffixes is extended to Area wise and regional wise (Taluk wise and District wise) pattern analysis.

This has to be extended to all villages in a particular area .Let us consider the same unit already noted in Araamprom studies" Basic settlement" for further analysis

This has many factors to interrelate. Major factors are Uur settlements, Pre-historic signifiers in toponyms, Tribes/aboriginals, indigenous worshipping centers. Etc.These factors in all villages are at first identified. Then each "unit" of settlement is marked in each village map. Then small areas such as two or three villages are analyzed; they are grouped into form an area study.

(ii) Such area studies when extended to more villages necessitated accounting of many other factors reflected by toponyms. They are also taken in to account and hence various kinds of Village Groupings (Areas) emerged out. They are generally factors of later Evolutionary stages of Social formation and cultural evolution.

1Distribution of uuR, Tribes, Shrines, Prehistoric sites Etc in a group of villages. Which are close together. (Distribution of original Malayala Settlements: Area Study)

2 Consolidated pictures of the basic settlements in a larger Area-Regional study

3Area Groupings of Various categories. The areas identified can be compared to Tinai system of early concepts Here it is conceptualized in two ways. In this analysis the hierchical status of each area is decided. They are segments of social groups. Hence new names are given to each area. Generaly they are called Complexes and groups in urban study method .In Deshacharithram and pradesha charitram it is termed as KaavuTattakams

X

Area study: Pradesha padanam

A group of Villages-2( MAPS 6to15)

Study of village structure in Kerala is dealt with some scholars like Eric Miller and others. The methodological study of the infra structure of a single village is given in the name Araamprom Study, along with a few case studies. Micro toponymycal approach is the basic principle of this analysis. Araamprom village study is a study based on a Revenue village. Distribution of Micro toponyms or Suffixes are analysed based on field names. In both cases we have to take up the study on area based and regional based. Pattern studies and Map studies of a Taluk is a kind of Regional study

Patterns of settlements of occupational classes, Brahmins, and a few other groups of people in the taluk-based on Toponymical maps show many interesting social formation models. Occupational classes such as kollan, veluthedan thattan etc are widely distributed and each and every village reflects their presence. Brahmins settle fertile upper tablelands close to paddy fields and close to areas of administrative nodal points.

(Maps, Reports,Papers 110,111,112,136)33

Early political divisions like Naatu of Sthaniis of smaller local ceerikkals (Administrative divisions etc) are also regions. Identification of a Region depends on the Theme to be analysed based on nature of the social factor. For analyzing Trade routes a large area is to be taken as a region. Distribution of Natu suffixes given in sample Maps (Maps,Reports,Papers No: 64, 65, 66, 71, 75, 81, 82)34 is another example of Regional study. Distribution of uuR settlements in a sample study is also given here. 46.1% of total uuR settlements are in GBI. 9.8% is in GB I.39.25% is in the GBIII. There are Five Urban complexes in the taluk they are Areas as pointed out earlier-Cluster of villages. The distribution of Complexes in the coastal Belt III is (a). 48% of the total in the GB III is in Puthiyangadi (b) 36% is in Nagaram (c) 20% is in Katalundi. Valayanaadu complex has 45% of uur in the GBII. Kutattai has 25% and Palur has 10%.

It is interesting to note that these are the areas were Natu regions of the early political rulers emerged .The four maps are also to be linked to Maps of area wise and Regional wise distribution of uur/naatu. The political interest of the area depends on production etc that are related to urbanization. Thus more urbanized areas are areas where density of uur is high. Polanatu kizhekkumpuram, Vatakkumpuram, Pozhavaay, Tamarassery, Kurubranatu, Northparappanadu etc are identified and establishes the interrelation of uur->urbanisation->naatu->political interest->economic background. UuR suffixes are thus very important signifier of earliest stable human settlements. (Phd para4.12 to 4.14.4)35 Naatu thus generally reflects urban situations

XI

Earliest settlements

uuR To Macro Unit Naatu

Distribution of uuR

(a) Village wise( b) Areawise (c)District wise

d) Distribution in Venad during 9th to14th C.A D. uuR/naatu Etc

(a) Village wise:

- uuR settlements and settlements of occupational classes are discussed in the above noted paragraphs .The original stable settlements are denoted by uur suffixes. Tribes and aboriginals who were settlers in and around uur areas had left their footprints in Toponyms. In many areas these early settlers are still live around these uuR settlements. The other factors like pre historic sites; shrines etc are also reflected in names it is a kind of clusters. The nature of such settlements shows local variations according to the geographical situations. These geographical situations change the productions and nature of urban situations. In villages the tribes and many occupational classes settle in areas with uuR as its Nucleus of the cluster .In these maps a black dot inside a circle in the village 99.Kuttambuur circle indicate the uuR Nucleus. In 99.Kuttambuur there are 4 uuR nuclei. Legend of the maps in general is given in map 168 Chuuluur, both in colour and black and white. All the villages in the talk were put to this rigorus and grass root level analysis It is found that the nature of uuR settlements and tribes etc show the basic pattern. But when the villages are semi urban or urban the settlements get disturbed and the cluster-uuR nucleus relation breaks. (Maps ,Reports,Papers 86to105)36

(b) Area wise:

- All these are studies based on villages with revenue boundaries given by British officials. Here another maps including two or more villages closely attached spatially are given .In maps nos 76, 76.1, 77, 77.1(PhD)37 an important distribution pattern is given. (Maps, Reports,Papers 102, 103, 104, 105,)38 In map 76, Village nos: 98, 95, 94, and 96 are in a cluster which form an area. Settlement of Kerala is dispersed type like this All the 200 villages are in this model-they are continuous. Geographical entity Map76and 77 are cluster of villages ( maps 77 villages are 81,82,71,70 and 83.)39 with boundaries marked as in the settlement records. Maps 77.1and 76.1show the cluster of villages without revenue boundaries separating them. But the boundaries around the cluster are as in the settlement records. These two Clusters are areas for studying uuR-Tribe- stable settlement situation. This is a kind of segmental study.

The villages show that the occupational classes are settled in clusters covering large areas. Almost all villages show this tendency .It goes against the observation of Eric J Miller In villages 96-Parannuur, 99-Kuttambuur, 188-Pannikkod, 98-Punnacceri, 94-Eravannuur, and in 95-Punnuur Cerupalam. These settlements of occupational classes in clusters have a nucleated form with uuR as the nucleus. These villages are on the northern part of the Taluk.81, 82,83 etc are on the southern part of the Taluk. This type of Microanalysis clearly reveals two situations.

I. In the early stages the Kerala villages were uuR nucleated and centralized. Later due to various kinds of urbanization forces such as intrusion of Great culture, markets etc the areas became dispersed type of settlements. II British Revenue Officials decided the boundaries. These boundaries divides the clusters of settlements of tribes etc This type of village boundaries divided the social system and social structure.

(c) District wise( Habitat ional Suffixes in the Calicut District)

A study of uur settlements was done covering all villages in the Calicut district. It was based on Village names. However it revealed that villages ending with uuR suffix are distributed on the riverbanks and other water sources. The research paper presented

in 1979 (A study of Uur suffixes or Habitational suffixes in Calicut District Dravidian Linguistic Conference, Calicut university, 1979) It is pointed out in the paper

" that while the prefix is a descriptive term whose chief value is to distinguish one place from another .the ending is the Basic word. This means that the name of the place and the ending or suffix were the same in the early period. The tendency to name a place by a compound descriptive term is relatively modern. It therefore follows that at an earlier stage place name endings were simple words.uuR is one of the best example in this context. Their separate existence vanished in due course and became agglutinative root. Originally the definition of the place name was contained in that part of the place name, which later on developed in to the place name ending. Hence if we separate the place name suffixes of a particular area and study them, it will reveal the different stages of its cultural development.

Habitational suffixes can throw light on problems such as to the earliest settlements, density of population, and geographical enviornments of the place and prehistoric and archaeological importance of a place."

Part of data analysis is given in (Maps ,Reports ,Papers121-135)40

A distribution map is also given. This paper is the pioneering work which became the BASIC model for Calicut studies, Bharathappula river valley Studies and Village history studies. It is a surprise to note here that Dr M. R.Raghavavarior in his Toponymical papers never mentioned such important papers. Dr Varior and Dr RajanGurukkal in their work KERALA HISTORY (Sukapuram, 1993) also avoided such a reference. Later, Kerala Council of Historical Research also did"nt refers such pioneering ventures in Village studies.

One of the major problem to study social history of Kerala was that the availability of source materials. Now from the above discussion it is clear that toponymycal evidences are very helpful in the analysis of social evolution. It is because of the nature and distribution of Toponyms of Kerala.The earliest centralized unit of Kerala village, its evolution and urbanization through ages etc are all can be scientifically studied if toponyms are used in a scientific basis. The analyses need Inter deciplinary /Multi deciplinary approach. This was the attempt made in the study of Legacy of Nila on the basis of participatory research/sharing of knowledge.

d) Venadu: sample survey of urban situations

A sample survey based on distribution of Stone inscriptions of Venad during the11th to 18th c A D These places and villages were noted in the inscriptions because they were some kind of nodal points. Thus they are urban centers. The distribution patterns of uuR and Naatu are analysed. (Maps ,Reports,Papers 113-120)41 On the basis of these patterns Urbanisation trends of various periods are discussed in the Book (Kerala Samskaram Akavum Puravum.2002. pp.253-308) A study of place names of Venad is to me Acknowledged here for giving necessary Toponymycal data The work is ‘Historical and Cultural Geography Of Venad (Travancore) c. AD 1124-1729 (PhD Dissertation submitted to Deccan College of Post-Graduate and Research Institute Poona P 1979 P. L. Chakkochan.)

                                                                                                                                  III

                                                                                   Area Study and Regional Study-3

                                                                                  (Rural and Urban Segments)

                                                                                  (A) AREA STUDY

                                                                                  (B)kaavutaTTakam

                                                                                  ( b)UrbanComplexes,Groups,Isolated Units

                                                            kaavu taTTakam (Kaavu Spheres/Divine jurisdiction of kaavu)

 

 

Earliest Divine administrative units of kerala .taTTakams are a group of thara’s under a deity’s divine area and it was managed by the VeLichchappad or Oracle. This is the Pure MalayaaLa system of administrative revenue unit of Kerala. The land belongs to a deity.All the households and land belongs to the deity. These families have umbilical relation to the Divine Shrine NODAL POINT

1 Festivals and Sacred grove and market:

a) pooram, pooyam, thalappoli ,theyyaTTu,thiRayaaTTom, vela ,paTayani,etc are traditional village festivals generally termed as Non- Aryan Rituals of Malayalans or people of Malayala rajyam/naatu .It is to be identified as signifiers of Little Culture.(Keralasmskaaram Akavum PuRavum ,2002 Dr NM Nampoothiri,Pub;Central co-operative Society ,University of Calicut See Contents Maps,Reports,Papers )42

Various tribes and aborigines of Malayala naatu settled in the uuR.uuR’s gradually spread all over the naatu when settled life started. Settlers were such aborigines or tribes as explained in Toponomycal map study. Families of uuR's were units of ancestral families. They assembled with their village produces or forest produces collected for exchange and marketing in such festivals. (Ex: ValliyuuRkkavu festival in Wynaad, Vettikkavala in Kollam, Aryankaavu in palakkad (Maps ,Reports,Papers)43 These festivals were Divine. Indigenous annual rituals were conducted to worship the village deities.

There were customary rights to various families of the uuR as administrative groups or headmen or uuru mooppans (Akavum puRavuam)44. Other uuR settlements around the one where festival is conducted also had some rights like this in the uuR where festival is being conducted. Such rights were based on the kinship relations of the deities based on myths of these uuR's with the deity of the uuR where festival is taking place These kinship relations are "umblical relations" (Naabhhii naala bandham.) and not the general external relationships. (Studies of PoTTuRkkaavu Aryankaavu KuutalluR-Kotikkunnu Maps ,Reports,Papers)45 This system is even now very prominent in village shrines or Kaavu.

Art forms are seen emerged out of the sacred grove system as links between these villages-i.e. uuRs.Thus there forms a Village/kaavu network Kutira vela (a kind of marching of artificial horses made of straw etc from uuR to the Sacred Grove) KaaLa veela (same as horses) are all strong links of the uuR's to a nucleus of the area, a prominent uuR (Case study of Aryan kaavu in Vaaniyamkulam vjnaniiyam ,Report to UGC EtcBy N M Nampoothiri )46 Another link is a ritual called kuruthi. Families conduct kuruti as an offering to their village deity and deities of other villages who have kin ship relation to their own village deity. It is done by the Oracle who goes to the kaavu in other uurs in the same taTTakam. Now a taTTakam is formed. Later Great culture merged these art forms of sacred Grove settlements to Temples(See list of items on Nila banks merged to Temples. (Akamvum Puravum)47.

b)Kannaki worship

:Many Female deities in the village groves are seen praised as Kannaki of Madura who is the Principal Goddess of Trade .Many Bhagavathiis are coming to the Groves in ship or kappal(a signifier of maritime trade.) These Female deities are seen worshipped by Chetties of eastern coast who are Trade Groups. Deity of maaTaayikkaavu (maaTu+vaay=Port near hillocks. Varakkal is another case.vara means hillocks) Deity praised in payyannur paaTTu, etc and deity of Pishaari kaavu (Pantalayini port/ Kollam Port) etc are these typs.Pitaari or pishaari signifies Kaali in Tirunelveli areas. There are shrines of deity piTaari widely spread over Tirunelveli /Madura areas. (PhD)48

Zamorins of Calicut worshipped the deity as "kappal Bhagavathi". According to Dr .RaghavanPayyanaad, there is a myth related to Bhagagavathi of his own village. His family is now a part of Paappinicceeri village kaavu centre. The villagers once settled in the remote internal areas of the hills or upper table lands in kiiccheri village.The village Goddess used to come in kiiccheri in a ship .Once the water in that area receded and the ship was unable to move to the village. Thus the villagers moved to the new land formed by the withdrawal of sea.

There they established a new kaavu settlement and its taTTakam. Thus it is clear that the migration was based on some kind of economic aims... In many sacred groves of northern/Southern/and middle areas of Malayaala Naatu, Kannaki thoRRam is chanted to praise the deity. Kaavu was thus a Divine Grove linked to a market. Myths related to raavaari naayars pishaarikaavu and Lokanar kaavu (Lokanar kaavu Maps,Reports,Papers)49 are also significant. These raavaari nayars were a group of trade community migrated to pishaari kaavu area of Pantalaayini kollam port from Kurakkeeni kollam or southern kollam.

Market is based on Agricultural produces of all villages.When Great Culture transformed the Sacred Grove system to suit their needs, these types of structural factors were adopted by them and linked to a Kshetra or Temple Complex. One of the best example is relation existed between Varakkal temple and Puthiyangadi market (VarakkalGrandhavari Malabar padanangal-Saamoothirinaatu State language institute Trivandrum2007 ,Heritage of Calicut Mathrubhoomi Publications 2007)50The temple-oriented system thus adopted many factors of divine grove.(Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer Zamorins and temple arts Akavum puravum)51

c) Kannaki-Kaavu-market and Super imposition of "Goddess of trade"

Market is invariably linked to the village shrines. It is noted that there are thoRRams or divine chanting of songs (invocation of toRRam) praising Kannaki Devi in many kaavu centers. Kannaki is a female deity and her story is related to trade activities with Pandyas of Madura on the banks of Vaigai River and Cheras of Cranganuur on the river mouth of PeriyaR (western cost) .The movement of kannaki deity cult is thus a signifier of migration of a Divine Trade System from eastern parts of Tamilakam to western cost. Case studies prove that kaavu centers of northern Kerala (Payyannur paattu)51 as well as Southern Kerala show the migration of trade groups to Cranganuur Pilgrimage to Kodungallur is conducted by the lower castes of the society. Thus the network of the basic settlements is linked to KodungalluR. Kannaki is the principal deity of Cranganur shrine. The concept of kannaki thoRRam in the Aattukal Temple near Trivandrum and such situations in the Nila river valley are significant cases of trend of migration.

According to Dr Raghavan there are two types of female deities in northern Kerala .One of them is Sri KuRumbas. Another one is Kaali. Kurumbakkaavu belongs to Mukkuvas. Mukkuva families of power and status conduct festivals there. But the kaali shrines belong to a society and not to some families. The invocation of Kannaki thoRRam (paTTUalone) there is no theyyam to this deity) is seen in such Groves. CiiRmakkavu which belongs to carpenter communityand tiyyers have a Kannaki Relation according to Dr M. V. Vishnu Nampoothiri, the Folklorist. He said that the sacred shrines of kasargod. However the problem is to be analysed more scientifically and distribution of other deities in sacred groves in areas in all villages in Kerala is to be done. But family based and society based, Kannaki cult based and others are the two basic sets of sacred groves identified here as a preliminary basis for discussions. Kannaki cult is seen in areas from aaRRukaal in Thiruvananthapuram up to KoothupaRampu and MaTTannur in Malabar. Pilgrimage to KodungalluuR is conducted by lower groups of people up to these northern regions. In a way the thaTTakam of Kodungallur is areas between Thiruvanathapuram and Koothuparampu. The superimposition of Kannaki worship is thus a fact in northern Kerala also.

In central Kerala Kannaki relation is seen in myths, pilgrimage Etc.It widely spread in KuTTanatu, Alappzha areas. People from Ambalappuzha annually conduct pilgrimage to Kodungallur.A myth related to Kannaki linking the Deity to Purakkad (Porca port of Foreign travallers.) is quoted here.

"Once, Kodungallore Amma with the deities of Her own might, set cruising to different directions, and marked Purakkad, which was on top of its fame and prosperity at that time, as the meeting point for the journey back to Kodungallore. Due to reasons unknown, the present Deity of Murukkuveli temple could not reach Purakkad at the appointed time. Kodungalloor Amma and the other Deities left Purakkad without Murukkuveli Devi. Having felt abandoned, Murukkuveli Devi decided to reside permanently in Purakkad. The Maharajah of Chempakasseri regime at that time perceived the celestial presence of this Deity in a dream. Traditions demanded to establish the facts of the Highness's dream by conducting Devaprasnam. Devaprasnam is a fact-finding technique by applying astrological calculations, omens, generalization and combinations of events. Only learned and experienced scholars of this science are entrusted to conduct Devaprasnam. Due to exigency of the dream, the Maharajah ordered his court astrologers to conduct an immediate session of the Devaprasnam. Having the presence of the divinity established and interpreted in the session, the Maharajah of Chempakasseri Regime ordered to construct a Temple for the Deity. The Maharajah granted large tax-free estates for the smooth performance of the holy rituals and to meet the allied daily requirements of the temple"

An important aspect of Kuttanad area particularly Ambalappula, Purakkad and Trukkunnappuzha (supposed to be the Buddhist settlement Sreemuulavasam) locations is that the people annually conduct Sabarimala Pilgrimage. These situations show that there was an under current of Trade in thisRelations .The deity of Sabarimala had relations to Ampalappuzha according to certain family myths. The Arayas (Fishermen) visit the Erumeli Temple where Pettah (Market Festival) was conducted .These is to be investigated in grassrootlevel.52

Dr Raghavan agrees with the suggestion that there existed a Pre- Perumal nucleated Village settlement system in Kerala which was Sacred Grove Oriented. The migration of trade groups to Western Cost is reflected in the spread of kannaki worship .This was promoted and patronized by perumals-i.e.chera kula of Ilam ko Atikal during the Sangham period(3rdc B.C to 3rd c A. D.) The Central pivotal point was Kodungalluur.

Crangannur was one major settlement of early Cheras of karoor vanchi. Kannaki cult was brought by the Chera family.The story of kannaki was the theme of Cilappadikaaram written by Ilam ko Atikal. Even now ATikal families from the banks of Bharathappula River are the Priests of KoTungalluR Kaavu. Atikal is a title seen in the case of Chera Ilam Ko. The aTikal families conduct poojas at Koti kkunnu Kaavu where the Kannaki Cult exists on the river bank of NiLa Kotikkuunnu was a famous market known as Kulamukku.These situations indicate the importance of Kodungallur Kaavu and Migration of Trade Groups to kodungallur

The importance of Cranganuur is not related to Muziris and Maritime trade alone; but it is more significant in the Social formations of Malayaala naatu. (Poottur kaavu, kuutallur, koorranaatu, poyilam Akavum PuRavum Maps, Reports, Papers)53The earliest village deity existed in many villages were super imposed with this kannaki version.

It resulted in the urbanization of villages. Thus this evolution is to be taken as an important stage in Capitalisation Trend in Kerala in early days.

2 Divine leaderships and Political power system in Sacred Grove

a) This type of groves has divine leaderships. The divine Leader is the Oracle or Velichappaatu. He regularly visits specific locations in the villages .He conducts kuruthi in other uuR -Kaavu centres around his kaavu which are related to his kaavu in kinship terms and used to conduct kuruti. This area is a divine one sanctified by his visit. Thus it becomes the thaTTakam or jurisdiction of the kaavu. These kaavu thaTTakams were again related each other by visit of the Oracle of each kaavu. In this way an AREA of Malayalanaatu originates. Such areas when inter-related we get a REGION of Malayaali. When regions are interrelated we get MALAYALA RAJYAM.

b) uuru mooppans were actualy the political head of the uuR and the authority in the apex of the administrative structure (Akavum puravum)54. It is also a position of Divinity. (In later period there was a saying-Raja Pratyaksha Daivatam. Life of kings was regularized in parallel to systems in the temple worship Kovil /kooyil means temple andPalace ) Most of the village Gods were indigenous deities like mother Goddess etc(PhD)55 .It is very important to note that the political system, customary rights, customs and manners, Economic system etc are all strongly linked to Divine Grove Worship. Usually these Inter- relations were not taken in to account in studies. uuR settlement is stable and centralized Human habitation. It has a political leadership and political administrative system with various hierarchies and customary rights to persons and families. All are under divine folder. The Utayavar’s of Kulasekharas (Cheras of Mahodayapuram) and Sthanis of Swaroopams (Chieftaincies of Medieval period) are to be compared to this system. The Divine grove has a divine market also. It is also adopted by Kshetras as Utsavams.( Akavum puravum etc)56 Everything is Divine and recurring annual functions.

c) Kodungallur Sacred Grove became a Power centre of politics, a port centre of maritime trade and internal trade, and a religious centre for pilgrimage of lower castes from taTTakams of Kerala as a whole. There was a well planned Capital city as the Rajadhani, a port city etc in 8th c.A D.Thus this Urbanisation might have started from very early period with the Sacred Grove as the Nodal point(Cranganur Maps,Reports,Papers)57

d) Another parallel example is of Zamorins of Calicut. Valayanattu kaavu of Zamorins of Calicut also show the importance of Sacred Grove system. Valayanattu kaavu was a Nakaram in the Port City of Calicut.as per the Zamorins Palace records.Nakaram was an administrative group of a trade centre existed during the period of Kulasekharas of Cranganur.Vaaniyamkulam (Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer)58 where the Aryankaavu exists also was a Nakaram during the same period. Ancestors of Zamorins conquered the Calicut port and occupied the Valayanattu kaavu and established a planned a port city. It is proved that there existed an irregular pattern of port at Calicut .It belonged to the Porlathiri according to tradition. Zamorins were EralanaTTu uTaiyavar during Kulasekhara period. Their ancestral village was Nediyiruppu in Kondotty a remote internal area of Malappuram District They moved to Valayanattu Kaavu area for improving maritime trade .They adopted the deity of Valayanatu kaavu as their Principal deity .During their royal visits it was customary to take a wooden door by name Palli maaRaati in front of the Royal procession .This piece of wooden door is believed to be the abode of the deity.( PaLLi is a honorific prefix to maaRaaTi. maaRaatuka in this context seems to mean make abode or hide ) It means that there was a Sacred grove as a nodal point. On the sea shore ( PhD)59.It was a port. Nediyiruppu Swaroopam conquered it and Urbanised to suit to their maritime Trade.

e) In Trikkavuon the river mouth of Ponnani, there existed the Ritualistic Headquarters of Zamorins of Calicut. He was always staying there. His procession to conduct Mamaakam was started from Trikkavu Palace .Zamorins palace Manuscripts give all these details.Kottichezunnallath to Calicut from Ponnani Head quarters are many and they are giving great importance to Trikkavu Kaavu." Ponnani vaayke Trikkavil Koovilakathu Irunnarule" is the opening words of all Palm leaf Manuscripts of Zamorins palace.

f) MaaTaayikkaavu, Katameerikkavu, Kalarivatukkal Etc are all have such dimensions.Maatayikkavu and kalarivathukkal kaavu were the Power cetre of Koolathiriin later period. It was major outlets to sea. a maaTayi was a place were Maritime trade was prominent .There exists a Mosque inscription as a signifier of the relation between Olathe nadu Chieftaincy and Muslim Traders in Maatayi Palli. Kalarivatukkal kaavu is near Valapattanam. PaTTanam means Coastal town or port .The shrine is also the paradevatha (ancestral deity Swaruupa devata) sthanam of koolathiri .In kalarivathukkal along with Swaroopa devatha other Six upadevatha teyyams are also participat.These are Grama devatha’s according to Dr Vishnu Nampoothiri. Apart from this their existed KuTumba devata too.Gramas and Families were visited by Swaroopa devatha.This system of visit of swaruupa devatha must be an adaptation of a pre-existed Oracle visit which structured a kaavu taTTakam. In the temples it was transformed to PaRaYeTuppu, Visit to gramachatwaraas an important locations in the village on PaLLiveTTa day of the utsava it is adopted and established by PuTayuur bhaasha, Tantra samuchaya etc (13th and 15th c A D) .Zamorins of Calicut Trans formed the system of village visit of devine power to collect money through a Divine Drama performance Krishnanaattom.

g) Distribution in Venad .P. L. Chakkochan in his PhD Thesis has done a detailed discussion to support the settlement pattern uuR given above. Settlement of specialised occupational groups, tribes ,aborigines, distribution of kaLam paTTinam etc are all analysed in the work ( pages 208,213,214,220, 221,223,229,243,244 Un pub.) In the analysis of settlements he also suggests uuR as the earliest habitational Signifier. In the analysis of kaavu and settlements of lower classes like aborigines etc also some of his observations are reasonable .His observations are on settlements of Venad where uuR and kaavu links were not studied.

In Venaad there are enormous muTippuraas instead of kaavu. According to historian Sri Sivasankaran Nair there were no icon worship in these mutippuraas. But the deity in a muTippura is considered to be a female deity. Saarkara temple in Chirayin kiil is an important Kali worshippig temple and Probably it might have some relation to the ancestral rulers of Venaatu. It is a seen that many Sacred groves including Sarkara belonged to the Pillamar and other Sthanis of Venad. In Attingal there exists a Mother Goddess Family temple for the Venad rulers. It is said that this deity was the Kuladevatha of Kolathu natu Ruling family and when the kolathu family came to Attingal as dattu to venad family, they brought with them their kuladevatha also. However ,the goddess of Attingal or Vaahiniitatanivasini is highly praised by Swathi thirunal ,The great composer in his compositions " Navarathri Krithikal".It is to be noted that Maharaja Swathi Thirunal praises Saraswathi in six compositions and Durga in three compositions of Navaratri kritikal. So he worships two Deities.Probably he worships the ancestoral deities of Venaad and kolathunad. The uuraalas of sacred groves are always communities other than Brahmins and other Communities.These aspects are to be more investigated. (Akavum puravum)60

3 Koottayma (in which an Umblical relationship exists) and kulam

a) In Malayala Rajya Charitram, the micro segment is generally known as desam. But there is no geographical area with boundaries is fixed for a desam in early days (Maps,Reports,Papers)61. As noted above we have to take into consideration the kulam or family system as a micro unit. Such units were settled in the uuR-Kaavu geographical segment. It is usually neglected in studies. The story of PaRaki peRRa pantirukulam reveals this social dimension very prominently. The members assembled in the ancestral house every year to conduct ancestral rituals. This is a Kulam.This system existed in the tribes of Tamizhakam and it is analysed in grass root level by this author.(Akavum puravum)62 Chera’s ,Pandya’s and Chola’s had such system of kulams.Cheera kulam was a tribal Family and the rulers titled Cheras belonged to it. The Kulasekharas of Cranganuur were also belonged to Chera kulam. Thus a system of family koottaayma existed even during the period of Sangham literature.

Ancestral family system is seen in political ruling families like perumpatappu, Venaad etc.They believe that they are descendants of cheera kulam. AaTTU system in families in the region VaniyamkuLam (Ottappalm) is one of the best examples of the family tradition of kulam. Even though the Malayali family is in the Contemporary period seems to be isolated units. They have an inherent centrifugal force through the linkages to withstand against centripetal forces. The families are now single units or Anu kutumbam. But they are linked to ancestral family by ancestral rituals etc.Thus they are not isolated units also. Such relations are incorporated in Divine Grove system also. So the Malayala manas (mind) is also a unique one( Uty of Clt )63 uuR thus gets urbanized through divinity of Grove. Political factors (Power), Economical factors (Wealth) and customs and manners (aachaaras-Religion) were all linked to divinity.

4 uuR, rural urbanization, Capitalisation

a) The basic urbanization process in Malayala rajyam has its origin in uuR - kaavu - divinity base. This is an all-pervading phenomenon. This situation clearly points out that how "Capitalisation "of Economy came in to force. Sacred grove was a funnel to suck wealth for some groups who are the earliest settler’s .Their leader ships gradually became wealthy suitably manipulating power and religious observances. Such patterns of cultural factors have their impacts on the Micro factor"Family"or "KuTumbam" also. Family based capitalization also was widely spreading. It is usually explained that in Kerala Capitalization was completely a trend brought by Brahmin migration.The trend was there in kaavu System and all the forces of Capitalization was acting and re- acting in the settlements of Sacred Grove system. It was much increased with the migration of people of Great culture.

b) By introducing Tantra sastra system in the kaavu-uuR central point of the settlement absorbing many factors of the village, the village gradually absorbed many factors of the Great culture also. This created a trend of Co existence along with urbanization The temple system was established in Malayala naTu considering the habitat and environmental conditions and basic cultural life of Kerala people. It starts with the description of Bhoopareekshha.The earth for building a temple is selected based on the qualities and fertility of the earth in Kerala situation. The items of offerings, PanchaPrakara system of the temple Utsava system etc are all friendly to the Kerala situations. Kerala Tantra system is a Samuchayam of many basic Tantric systems. It thus became a unique way of tantra, a Kerala system. Thus in the discussion of Cultural evolution of Malayala Rajyam we have to place the earliest phase of Process of accumulation of wealth in the Family units of uuR settlements.

c) The nucleated and centralised villages were uuR’s. All transactions and exchanges were in the uuR-kaavu Divine Jurisdiction (taTTakam).It was thus a Divine Market. The accumulation of wealth was a major trend in the nuclear village uuR through divine market. Political and administrative hierarchies were also the product of this uuR-kaavu system. Customs and manners received divinity and all pervading code of conduct and status in this axis. This is the first phase of evolution of cultural and social formation in malayala rajyam.

d) Enormous number of kaavu taTTakams was there in each Taluk. (Phd, Akavum puravum Maamaanka Rekhakal :Dr N.M Nampoothiri Vallathol Vidyapeedom Sukapuram 2006 ,Maps,Reports,Papers mamankataTTakam etc)64 There are Sacred Groves to many families of little culture as their private wealth .Later a large number of families belonged to the great culture also became the owners of these kaavu system Its mega form is visible in later period as Maamaankam. All kaavu Tattakams were linked to Tirunavaya mamankam. A large number of families were part of such festivals. Such families were getting money and titles with power from the ruling Swaroopam, the Political Head.It is a Hereditary right too. It is described in the Zamorins Records in detail Sacred Grove was a funnel of sucking wealth and a catalyst of Capitalization.So they brought many code of conduct related to the activities of Kaavu system/temple system. Certain group of people was even prohibited from the premises of the divine grove/temple.

e) Such prohibitions were the root causes of Guruvayoor Satyagraham ( Saamuuthiri Charitrathile kaanaappurangal,1987)65 an incident of the 20th c AD. There were more than sixty wealthy feudal families who objected to give entry to people of little culture families to their private temples. These temples were once shrines and they were transformed to temples by the followers of great culture.Guruvaayuur temple was a sacred Grove called kuruvayuuR in early days. By 1538 A D it is mentioned as KuruvayuuR vattom. It was then under the control of the Zamorins of Calicut and the present temple was established. It became famous due to the presence of a Great political leadership, the poem written by Melputtur, and the Important Tantra Text written by Chennas. Even now it is customary that after visiting The Temple one must visit the kurumpakkaavu location and give offerings.Then he has to visit ciriccikkaavu and mammiyuur temple. The thantri of Guruvayuur has control over the kurumpakkavu location. Now it is very clear that the discussions of Cultural Evolution of malayalanaatu are to be beginning with the earliest form of village system. As far as Malayalanaatu is concerned, this researcher feels that starting point is the Divine grove-uuR unit.

(5) Transformation of Centralised villages to dispersed type of villages

a) Centralized villages and distribution of the uuR etc are discussed under Micro toponomy (Village wise and Area wise Maps ,Reports Papers 113-120, 76.76.1, 77, 77.1, 102-105)66 There, it is seen that a large area is lying in between the uuR settlements without marking any settlements. These spaces are inhabited by people of all groups in later times. Area wise settlements of Occupational classes, mangalams of Brahmins, etc are seen in such spaces. The number of divine groves as per toponymycal data is very large in villages. Kshetra complexes are also larger .The distribution of them in a Taluk is analysed in the study based on Toponomy (PhD)67 The limitations of studies based on other source materials is very clear. There are many studies seen related to Sacred Groves .All of them are general reports. They never touches the basic issues of Socio-Economic, Socio- cultural or Evolution of "Kerala culture" etc.

b)Settlements of various groups of people is significant.The proliferation of nucleated villages with uuR as the nucleus is discussed below in relation to some basic aspects of Sacred Groves in North Malabar. The ideas pointed out by Dr Raghavan Payyanaad are also discussed here. The distribution occurred on various grounds. Some of them are:

1. Occupationalclasses like kollan taTTaan aassaari taccan, vaaniyaas, kalari lokar etc

2. Temples and temple servants.

3 Priests and other Brahmin groups

4. New settlements of agricultural labourers,

5 Markets and traders like chetty’s, tarakan’s

6 jains, Buddhists

7. Muslims, Christian’s etc.

c)Proliferation of kaavu settlements According to Dr Raghavan, Sacred grove villages were primarily caste based settlements.Dr Vishnu Nampoothiri pointed out that the KuTumba Devathas are also many. Each of the settlement was geographical units according to Dr Raghavan. Thus settlers were interested in establishing new village with a new sacred grove as nodal point. This basic proliferation is thus of Tribes and aborigines. They made the split up in villages to suit their need of economic gain. This trend in the early phase of proliferation of settlement is of great importance and not yet addressed by any researcher except Dr. Raghavan.

d)Space utilization is thus for highly diversified activities. This situation is the major force, which brought a Decentralised or Dispersed Villages in malayalanaatu (PhD)68 .As pointed out earlier the nucleated village unit, the uuR-kaavu segment still exists. It is proved by various toponymycal studies (Maps Reports Papers PhD)69 .This can be termed as Unity among Diversity. The demography of malayalanaatu is thus peculiar. Every one is living in separate fields. But every one is a neighbour-irrespective of the diversified identity. It is because of this settlement pattern there never arise any feuds or rebellions in villages. In families also, each one has his identity. At the same time he, as a member of the family has participatory identity. PaRakiperra panthirukulam explains this concept. Each one has great individuality belief .At times it is controlled by his collective consciousness. The consciousness of a collective individuality (Kuuttaayma Bodham) is inherited mostly from the kuuttayma basis of malayali village life.

6 Basic village frames i)Little culture ii) Great culture

a) Social structure in sacred groves was a KooTTayma with the basis of politics, wealth, religious customs and manners. This pattern was widely spread over Kerala/malayala rajyam.Each and every kaavu was linked together ritualistically or relations based on kinship. These relations are discussed in details in the Tattaka Studies( Aryankaavu,Pottuur kaavu,Kotikkunnu etc Maps, Reports,Papers )70 Villages are thus linked to an area.In the analysis of Kshetra System also such kooTTaayma is seen.Many kaavus are linked to temples in many ways. (Akavum Puravumm Vaaniyamkulam ,Kotikkunnu Maps,Reports,Papers)71 All these points out a Situation that the basic Village koottayma can be identified in the Kaavu Koottaayma (Collectivity of Sacred grove settlements)

b) Thus the Collectivity system existed in the Pre- agrarian System of worship as Nucleated Villages gradually transformed to a taTTakam or a collective Village Koottaayma.This is the Area explained in this context.

c) Family koottayma is also there. It is the micro unit .There exist a KuTumba devatha (Family Deity.)(Eg: Panthirukulam myth and kaavu system of Vaniyamkulam area)

d) A kind of koottaayma system as gotras, pravaras etc are there in Brahmin original settlement of Kerala.It is discussed at length in my book (Akavumm PuravumContents Maps,Reports,Papers)72

e) Collectivity thinking is basically an inherent quality based on the worship of mother Goddess or any deity worshipped in the settlement- uuR. Thus there comes the presence of a Grama devatha. When uuR nucleated villages come under another collective system of settled life as taTTakam all the nucleated villages are linked to one of the important sacred groves and it becomes the Central-Nodal Point of activity.Now there emerges the power structure as the authority and the Nodal Grove becomes the Swaroopa Devatha. The basic forces are Wealth, Religious customs and manners, and Power. They act as Centripetal or Centrifugal forces in the System.As noted earlier the sacred groves linked together were spread far and wide in Malayala Raja.

These taTTakams or sacred areas were super imposed by Great culture incorporating their collective System. Thus "Sacred grove system "of Little Culture is merged to "Kshetra system" of Great culture. This process is the basic force which transformed Malayala Rajyam in to Kerala or Bhargava/Parasurama kshetram.This situations are Rural Urbanization signifiers.

7KeralaVillages: Surface surveys : Folklore and Toponymy

a) The Pattern of evolution of village discussed above must have been uniformly spread over in the geographical area of present Kerala. Studies related to Village Gods of south India was done by scholars .It is seen that Kerala was not at all under their survey and study. The religious Life of India-Village Gods of south India-By Henry Whitehead, Bishop of Madras prepared an exhaustive survey in south India. He Says "The materials for this account of the village gods of South India has been gathered almost entirely from my own observation and inquiry---each village seems to have been under the protection of some one spirit, who was its Guardian deity. Probably these village deities came into being at the period when the people began to settle down in agricultural communities. ----In India the population seems to have been split up in to small agricultural and pastoral communities." However the investigation report of 19th century is completely Re-enforcing the Aryan migration theory and suppression of Dravidians by Aryans. But it is not discussing the problem in micro level. "In South Indian villages, villagers worship’ human beings returned to earth’ (Spirits-Ancestors).But they worship Uuramma or the village mother."(An essay on the origin of the south Indian Temple By N Venkataramanayya Madras 1930).Such observations are to be made basic sources for Studies of Village Culture in Kerala. Now Toponyms are the only major signifiers of various cultural factors of Kerala village’s .These signifiers will give new interpretations to the Folk lore findings.

b) Surface surveys of Sacred Groves of Malabar reveal some very important cultural situations of Malayalanaatu. I have not seen any in-depth Socio -Cultural/Economic studies of Kaavu system in Kerala. I was not able to survey and study the area. In the case of North Malabar area (Kasarkod and Canner districts: north of Badagara) Theyyam is the prevalent Ritulistic representation of the God or Goddess or Ancestral spirit, linked to a Kaavu. In the Kaavu, theyyam kettal is an annual ritualistic Dance performance festival. On southern part of Malabar in Kadattanaadu and south of it, tirRa and poothan etc is prevalent.In the Ottappaalam areas we see the aaTTu, an ancestral ritual in many families of lower castes. TiRa, pooothan, and such local variations are to be studied in grass root level.

c) Dr Raghavan Payyanatu the famous Folklorist of University of Calicut comments that the sacred village with a Village deity as the pivotal point and a settlement of aborigines, tribes etc close to it and signifier of a stable settlement uuR as the nodal point of an agrarian status explained with the evidences of Toponomy seems to be the earliest form of a Kerala village. According to him the Sacred Groves of North Malabar have some peculiarities.

1. Caste based Stable settlements.

2 They have some geographical basis

3 .The Lower castes have their own caste based KooTTaayma or Collectivity System. 4 Families are linked under Tara/kazhakam Etc

He said that the nucleated village pattern brought out through my Toponymical investigations seem to be an acceptable basic village pattern of Kerala. According to him there are no micro studies of this level exposing the earliest form of Kerala village.

In Malabar area sacred groves are caste based. Sacred Groves of "mucciloTT" is a group of kaavu .Its ownership goes to Vaaniyaas or Oil producers and marketteers. MaaTaayikkaavu belongs to iilavas and they have kazhakams etc (Akavum puravum)73 These Groves belongs to Non aryan group of people like aborigines lower castes occupational classes like vaanian, tattan,caaliyar iiluvaas etc.

He pointed out that this nucleated village unit is to be taken as a Geographical unit. Each caste had its own settlement. But all are Kaali settlements .This observation is supported by his evaluation of sacred groves in North Malabar. The proliferation of Sacred Groves explained by him is also of great value in the discussion of the causes of transformation of nucleated village to de-centralized pattern of villages in Kerala.

It is seen that the geographical divisions play an important part in the teyyam Rituals in theGroves.Divisions like tekkar, vaTakkar etc are such caste based and geographical based units. Sacred rituals are conducted under the Saakteya system and priests are in most cases Pitaris/pisharis.They perform poojas in the system of Kaula tanthra.Toddy in the name of ‘Kalasa’ is brought from various areas. According to Dr Raghavan, any deity will be converted to a teyyam in these kaavu systems. There is a koottayma of theyyam in all kaavu sytem.

The koottaayma explains the undercurrent social situations.Kalarivatukkal Kaaliyattom is a model of Teyyam kooTTaayma.The teyyam festival of North Malabar ends with the Kalarivatukkal Theyyam Ritual. In Southern part of Malabar the TiRa festivals end with KaTameri Kaavu festival. So it is clear that the units of Sacred Groves have a central point .One is KaTameeri and the other is Kalari vaathukkal Both are Swaroopa Devathas. Thus every thing is linked together as a net work to the Major Sacred Grove .It covers a large area. It is evident that new settlements will be formed in the spaces left unoccupied. It is to be assumed that there were such grassroot level systems in Kerala as a whole.

An example of proliferation of sacred grove based settlements is pointed out by Dr Raghavan Payyanaat. His ancestors were settled in a very remote rural area near kiicheery in Canannur district a hilly track. The settlement was associated with a kaavu.It had large area as Divine Jurisdiction .Once the settlement split up into two and

7 families in the area near Pappinicceeriestablished their own kaavu at Paappinicheeri .The new Sacred grove was named as PUTHIYA KAAVU. It is interesting to note that this settlement was inside the divine jurisdiction of Kiicheery kaavu settlement. They established their own "Divine Jurisdiction". According to Dr Raghavan various sociopolitical and socio economic factors were the forces behind it. The new area was thus gradually urbanized with agriculture, trade and exchange and kaavu festivals. Thus splitting up of a kaavu taTTakam and filling the geographical space is a prominent way of urbanization in Malayaala Raajyam .This lead to spread the owners of little culture spatially in Malayaalanaatu. Exchange of produces in cash or in-kind existed in sacred grove system also. It was a part of festivals. According to Dr Raghavan the Village Banking system known as kuRi (kuRikkallyanam) has its origin in the kaavu taTTaka system

8) Proliferation of temples was a parallel spreading. Upagramaas and mangalams were spreading allover Kerala during the Kulasekhara period. (Akavum Puravum, Malayalante Valiyatayaalangal,DC Books Kottayam 2007.)74 Parallels are seen in Brahmin original Grama settlements also. Mangalams were isolated family settlements of Kerala.(PhD)75 As pointed out earlier Malayaala Brahmins have their own Gotra systems Original settlements are not a crowded system around a Grama Kshetram. A few families Stay around the grama kshetram. Other families stay in the near villages. They are linked to the Grama kshetra ritualistically .Vaaram is one of such rituals.Sukapuram and panniyuur surface investigations proved this nature .It is well known that Malayalam Brahmins have an identity compared to other Brahmins of the main land. They actually adopted profitable factors and systems of the people of little culture and suitably incorporated it to the temple system; it is why the Kerala temple system is an entirely different system compared to temples of the other parts of the main land. The rituals of the temples, Utsavams, Tantra systems etc are different in Malayalanatu. During the time of Swaroopams, they promoted the proliferation of temples.We have to evaluate the Thantrasamuchayam of Chennas of 15th c A D in this background.

i Proliferation of Brahmin settlements was based on temples, with the support of Ruling authorities. New gramas and upagramas were established in this way.

ii Proliferation of lower Caste settlementsalso took place based on Kaavu.This means two net work systems of settlements were there in early days.Sacred Grove based system and Gramakshetra based system.The absorption of net work system in to the temple system was the major process happened in the malayaala society. It is none other than a merging.It is not Aryanisation nor Dravidianisation.

In Kerala, presently village system is dispersed. But it had its origin in nucleated system of villages as kaavu-uuR -Owners of Little Culture AXIS. This pattern was adopted by Brahmin settlers. Families of kavuu -uuR settlements and Brahmins spread to all parts of the land. Hence most of the unused land around the nucleated villages got settled by people due to the need of urban situations brought out by Religion, Agriculture, Market, and Power politics

9) Unscientific Studies: Pre Conceived ideas in Social Evolution:

As pointed out earlier tiRa or teyyam were not put to grass root level survey and analysis. According to some scholars "Teyyam is pattern of heroe worship in Koolathu naad.teyyam is a corruption of Deivam.tiRa is the same type of worship .tiRa is performed on masonary stage.The persons who perform the dance is known as koolam"I t is the type of analysis (The cult of teyyam and heroe worship in Kerala-Dr K.K.N.Kurup.Centre for folk lore studies University of Calicut, 2000.Teyyam-Kerala Sangeetha Naataka academy Trichur 1987)

A discussion is reproduced here to see the limitation of the analysis of the Sacred Grove performing art and its Social significance.But it is clear that the Ritual is completely related to Bhadrakaali.It is the mother Goddess .In the discussion there are many hidden historical and social factors to be discussed. At least, it is clear that the performance of theyyam was done by lower groups of people like vannaan, maavilaan etc. The Difference between the sacred grove and temple is also to be noted. The title says" The Dravidian Resistance-The great Indian Mutiny" The inter pretation is exaggeration and Scientific in the context of theyyam ad thiRa. Yet another remark "Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples" These type of observations will damage further enquiries and researchers will not take up micro enquiries .Sacred Grove system is to be studied without any Prejudice. Aryan-Dravidian issue is not the major content to be enquired. Any body can make such comments based on some factors or signifiers. This is the model of the level of our enquiries and analysis. The following conclusion is another example.

"Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples"

The full text of the discussion is reproduced here .

Text I

Theyyam, otherwise known as Kaliyattom, is an ancient socio religious ceremony performed in Kerala since very remote times. As the word Kaliyattom denotes, this is a sacred dance performance for Kali. Kaliyattom is sometimes called Theyyattom because every thera or village was duly bound to perform it. These names show that Kaliyattoms were special festivals of religious and social importance.Sri. Rajan Panicker began to perform Theyyam from the age of 12 and he is son of Sri. Kannan Panicker who was honored by Kerala Folklore Academy in 1999. Rajan Panicker talks about Theyyam and its socio-religious backgroundsThe name Theyyam originates from the word Theivam, which means God.Q) Let’s start talking about the origin of Theyyam.A) In the early days our forefathers used to worship snakes, trees etc. Theyyam comes apart from that. There are different types of Theyyam peformed by different castes - Vannaan, Malayan, Velan, Anjoottaan, Koppaalan etc. Some of these Theyyams originated from the late forefathers or from the myth of someone who sacrificed his life to prove his innocence in the society. Each Theyyam has a background story. Let us take Vishnumoorthy Theyyam for example. This Theyyam was shown to one of our forefathers, who were called Paalayi Parappan, in his dream. The prayers and mantras to recite while performing this Theyyam was written in the sand by the time he woke up in the morning. In the modern days we have added more colors to the whole thing.Q) Is there any myth behind Theyyam?A) Yes, there is. Every Theyyam has a myth. I will talk about one. Let’s take Pottan Theyyam for example. The myth is that Lord Shiva came as a Pulayan (Pottan Theyyam) to test Sankaraachaarya (Pulayan is a low caste) and asked questions like, "What is the difference between you and me? Isn’t it the same blood running through our body? Then why should we differentiate ourselves?" etc. Every Theyyam has such a myth in the background and it is strongly connected to the modern society.Q) How old is this ritual?A) I cannot say about an accurate timeframe on this. In the early days when there was dynasty ruling, they needed Theyyam to be performed in their celebrations and made the low caste to do it. Then there were many additions to it and it transformed to this level.Q) Where do you perform Theyyam?A) Its performed in Palliyara, Kaavu, Sthaanam etc.

Q) What is the difference between this Palliyara and a normal temple with idols?

A) Temples have idol worship, poojas etc, but Palliayara has only Theyyams which is performed once in every year or so.This is what makes the Kaavu and Palliyara of low-caste different from the temples of high-castes. These Kaavus don’t have everyday Poojas or rituals. There is no idol to worship, but just a lamp lit that depicts the eternal light of God. Their Gods come in the form of Theyyam in every year or so to see and talk to the devotees. Remember, such a beautiful concept of God existed here ages ago.

Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples. Think about a situation when even the high-caste people (some sub-castes of Nair, a high-caste) praying to the God that comes in the form of Theyyam, performed by a low-caste and read this along with the then social situation of Kerala divided on the caste basis. Then only we can understand the social importance of Theyyam. Eventhough this is the case, Theyyam could not escape the caste-system totally. In the time of blessings (which is the final part of Theyyam performance) Theyyam first calls the family name of high-caste people present at the ceremony and would give them special blessings. Seeing this would make us feel that Theyyam is representing the God who is helpless with the caste system.

Rajan panicker says :Although we have the myths against caste system in Theyyam, it is not possible to make it practical while performing Theyyam. We can give an insight to the community through Theyyam, but the caste-system is very strict here. There is no compromise in it.

TEXT II

( i)

"The concept of sacred groves in India has its roots in antiquity. Ramakrishnan traces itsantiquity to the pre-Vedic period. He argues that, "Vedic people assimilated new environmentalvalues and the concept of ‘sacred groves’ from the value system of the original inhabitantsof the Indian subcontinent" and that it became a widespread practice. In the post-Vedicperiod, in addition to considering a landscape as such valuable and sacred, individual speciesand micro units also began to be treated as sacred.The idea of sacred grovesSacred lands are found everywhere around the world. In all parts of Africa, various tribesconsider different types of groves as sacred. In West Asia, Babylonians andAssyrians hadplanted sacred groves. Palm forest with altar has been reported from Arabia. Sacred Oakgrove was present in Asia Minor. Sacred mountains and lakes are present in Madagascar.Many Siberian people honoured sacred groves. Village groves are present in Korea. In Japan,Shinto shrines, as a rule, are surrounded by trees. Buddhist temples in Japan and China havetree-gardens. Traditional Chinese honour sacred mountains with trees. Buddhist monasteriesand temples of Thailand have sacred groves. Indonesia has monkey-forests. Sacred groveswere also present in Greece, Italy, France, Scandinavia, Sweden, Finland, British Islands,Arctic Russia, New Zealand, and Polynesia. Sacred groves are present in Nepal and SriLanka. In America, both pre-Columbian people and the settlers maintained sacred groves. InSan Francisco AIDS National Memorial Grove (1996) was started in memory of those whodied by AIDS and of other AIDS patients.In India sacred groves are found in a wide range of ecological situations from estuaries tomountain localities. Gadgil and Vartak (1976) record that the important regions with sacredgroves in India are the North Eastern Himalayas (Khasi-Garo hills), Western Ghats, Aravalli

10

Hills of Rajasthan and Sarguja, Chandes and Bastar area in Central India. But this does nA total of 110 local bodies are included in the study area. Kannur district has 81 GramaPanchayats and 6 Municipal towns. The selected area in Kasargod district is its southernpart and comprises 22 grama panchayats and one Municipal town.The sacred groves of the study localityThe sacred groves are of three types: Daivakkavu, where a male God is worshipped,Bhagavathikkavu, where a female God is worshipped, and Nagam or Sarpakkavu, wheresnakes are worshipped. Nagam or snake groves are numerous. Many of them are of smallsize. Yet large snake groves like Edayilekkadu exist in this region.Sacred groves are present throughout Kerala. In Kannur and Kasargod districts their distributionextends from West Coast to the foothills of Western Ghats. They exist as holy places forworshiping Gods, Goddesses, and Serpents. Many of them have small shrines attached tothem. Thick climax vegetation persists in many sacred groves, whereas in some others it isdegraded; in still others, the entire vegetation has been cleared leaving only the shrine. Complexrituals are performed in almost all of these groves which include periodical performance ofTheyyam, a practice of worshiping Gods and Goddesses in north Malabar. Each shrine,which stands in the name of a Theyyam, was associated with a sacred grove or situatedwithin a sacred grove. But in many at present the vegetation has been destroyed and only theshrine exists. Another remarkable feature is the large size of the sacred groves in this area,when compared with those of south Kerala.In Kasargod and northern part of Kannur district Kavu means sacred forest. The wordNagam is generally used here to denote a serpent grove. Shrines are present in associationwith many sacred groves of Gods and Goddesses. But some of them have only a small holyplace in the form of a stone, idol, platform or a single tree for worship. In serpent grovesusually there is no shrine inside or outside. Some idols or stones represent the place ofserpent god. The term Mundya is also used for sacred forest of God worship. At present inmany cases Kavus or Mundyas have turned to be simpOur survey revealed the abundance of sacred groves in this area compared to places furthersouth and further north. Five hundred and seventy-eight groves were located in the studyarea. They included the Kunnathurpadi, a holy land in the foot hills of the Western Ghats.The total area of the 578 sacred groves was 3.3710 sq. km, excluding sacred places withsingle trees, which were 50 in number. The number of groves having size of 5 cents andmore was 481.

17

The number of groves in local bodies varied from none to 53. The maximum of 53 sacredgroves were located in Kodom-Belur panchayats. Certain local bodies, especially themunicipalities, had no sacred groves of any significant size. Payyannur Municipal area wasan exception, where 36 sacred groves were located. This was due to the presence of sacredgroves in the suburban villages like Korom and Vellur of that Municipality. Larger sizedsacred groves were seen mostly in interior villages. The largest one was Kottiyur sacredforest having an extent of 36.423 ha. The other conspicuous groves were Theyyotkavu(24.282 ha, Kankol-Alapadamba Panchayat), Thavidisserikavu (12.141 ha, PeringomePanchayat), Kammadathkavu (24.282 ha, West Eleri Panchayat) and Kunnathoorpadi(21.0444 ha, Payyavoor Panchayat). Among these, best maintained groves were Theyyotkavuand Thavidisserikavu.Four hundred and three sacred groves have evergreen vegetation and 96 are semi-evergreen.There are only 28 kavus with deciduous type ofvegetation of which four groves have scrubvegetation. Our survey reveals that Thazhekkavu in Mattool Panchayat is the only sacredgrove with mangrove vegetation; 50 others are with one or two trees. The wet tropicalclimate of the locality supports growth of evergreen species, resulting in the majority of thegroves having evergreen vegetation. Single trees worshipped are all of the evergreen type.Groves in drier areas exhibit semi-evergreen nature. Upper portion of Aravanchalkavu issemi-evergreen. Natural deciduous vegetation is rare in the Western slopes. So, deciduousgroves are comparatively fewer. Evergreen trees generally have less timber value. However,owing to increased demand for wood, huge trees like mango trees are felled from somegroves. Demand from plywood industries has added a new threat for the generally noncommercialtrees. Kavu’s with deciduous trees of higher timber value thus face the threat offelling.Distribution, density, and sizeThe first documented study of sacred groves in North Kerala (Unnikrishnan, 1990) recorded62 sacred groves in Kasargod and 57 in Kannur district. That study included only groves ofsignificant extent. According to Ramachandran and Mohanan (1991), there were only 15kavus in Kasargod and 19 in Kannur. They were supposed to have listed all sacred groveswith an extent of more than five cents. In their report, Alappuzha district with 65 grovesstood first and Thiruvananthapuram with 31 occupied the second place. But our surveyreveals a total of 226 sacred groves in the southern part of Kasargod district falling under thestudy area and 352 all over Kannur. Of the 578 sacred groves in our study area, 483 arehaving an extent of more than 5 cents. In the light of these findings, in density of kavus, thesurveyed part of Kasargod district ranks first.Unnikrishnan (1990) recorded Theyyottukavu (24.282 hectares) of Kankol-Alappadambapanchayats as the largest grove in his study area. Largest kavu according to Mohanan andRamachandran was Iringolkavu in Ernakulam district (20.234 hectares). The earlier surveyshave missed Kammadath, Thavidissery, and Kottiyurkavu. Kammadath and Theyyottu kavusare larger than Iringolkavu. Next large ones according to Mohanan and Ramachandran werein Kannur and Kasargod districts and only 12 sacred groves exceeded one hectare in extentin this region. According to our study, however, 29 sacred groves in Kasargod and 32 sacredgroves in Kannur district exceed one hectare in extent.

18

The Kottiyoor forest is having sacred status even though it cannot claim the tradition ofother kavus. Thus it becomes the largest sacred-forest (37.2324 hectares) in the study areaand also in the entire Kerala State. In Alappuzha only four sacred groves exceed one hectareand the largest one is Vallikkavu of 3.444 hectares. The kavus in the present study area aremore in abundance and larger when compared to those of the southern districts."

(ii)

"HISTORY The existence of sacred groves in India most likely dates back to an ancient pre-agrarian hunter-gathering era, and their presence has been documented since the early 1800s. Believing trees to be the abode of gods and ancestral spirits, many communities set aside sanctified areas of forest and established rules and customs to ensure their protection. These rules varied from grove to grove but often prohibited the felling of trees, the collection of any material from the forest floor, and the killing of animals. Presiding deities administered punishment, often death, to individuals who violated the rules, and sometimes to the entire community in the form of disease or crop failure. As a result of these protective restrictions, preserved over countless years, sacred groves are now important reservoirs of biodiversity. Sacred groves are often the last refuge for endemic and endangered plant and animal species. They are storehouses of medicinal plants valuable to village communities as well as modern pharmacopoeia, and they contain wild relatives of crop species that can help to improve cultivated varieties. Sacred groves also provide for the water needs of nearby communities. Many sacred groves contain water resources such as ponds and streams, and the vegetative mass that covers the floor of a grove can absorb water during rainy seasons and release it during times of drought. Trees also improve soil stability, prevent topsoil erosion and provide irrigation for agriculture in drier climates. There has been no comprehensive survey of sacred groves in India, so their exact number and area are unknown. At least 13,720 sacred groves have been reported in various regions of the country, but experts estimate that the actual number is likely 100,000 to 150,000."(www.sacredland.org <http://www.sacredland.org/> Sacred land Film Project)

. According to some surveys there are 13720 Groves in India. Some other surveys say that there are more than 20000 groves in India. Some of the surveyors say that there are 5000 groves in Himachal Pradesh.Many surveyors say that there are Christian, Muslim, Jaina, Buddha, groves in many states India.

. In one related to Kerala, the investigator has only surveyed the area of study on the basis of records. But the survey based on records of general revenue papers will never bring out the situation properly. The age-old Groves, Sanctified fields are all highly distributed in a revenue village. The survey says that there are only 578 groves in the two districts namely Kasargod and Canannuur. These groves are distributed in the area of 110 Panchayaths and 6 Municipal areas. There are 481 groves having an area of more than 5 cents.

According to a local survey the Trittaala/Chalisseeri Panchayaths (Pantirukulam taTTakam Palakkad district) there are 970 sacred groves. Survey of another researcher points out that there are 2000 groves in Kerala However no authentic analysis or survey accounts are available

There are many studies on "Sacred groves. They generally deal almost all dimensions of these ‘cultural treasures’ and their antiquity. In some discussions it is seen that these groves are placed like this: "most likely to an ancient pre -agrarian hunter gathering era" (Cultural and ecological Dimensions of Sacred groves in India) Agricultural political, economical, and ritualistic importances are pointed out in the descriptions. But the question of evolutionary aspects of human habitation in kerala is untouched. The settlement patterns of Kerala are of a different character and it was able to put forward a theoretical frame work to Evolution of human habitation in Kerala.

. This author, for formulating the theory, the area selected is a taluk in Kerala (Calicut) and 200 villages were put to rigorous Toponomical study. Identification is based on Toponomy and other branches of Onomastics.Then the various aspects are analysed in interdisciplinary method.

In the Toponymical Analysis there are 721 groves distributed in 200 villages. It means that more than four Local deity micro nodal points of worship remains in each Revenue village. Such locations may be an on mastic signifier of Settlements or habitation. At present there may exist only this signifier alone. There may not be any ‘Active’Centres.It is clear from the maps given (FN 33, 34, 36,37and 38) the distribution pattern of such centres is almost in the average rate of 3 to 6. Out of them 51.73%(373) are in complexes and 48.24%(341) is in Groups) It means that Sacred Groves or sacred places of Non -Aryan deities are slightly higher in urban areas .It may be due to the urbanization situations existed in the area and multiplication of settlements. It is seen that19.8 %( 140) in29.7 %( 213) inG.B.II, and 50.2 %( 362) in GBIII. It is clear that GBIII is highly populated and settlements are more. It is seen that there are more than sixty local deities being worshipped. Such situations are directly related to Social evolution. The Groves are of great antiquity everywhere in the world. Hence Studies in the basis of Toponymy seems to be of great value (PhD page, Maps and reports 105,106, 111,112)76

Toponymycal identification of ‘Feroke fort area’ built by Tippu Sultan in Calicut was my first area study. Various Type of areas were later analysed for Toponymycal studies. The summary of such area studies are given as part II of this theoretical dessertation77 .      

Footnotes

1works (website content ) It is very important that Settlement Rrecords were used as Historical Source materials for the First time by this scholar .Again Village structure was brought out using Toponomycal data for the first time by this researcher in the Thesis  "A study of place names in the Calicut distrct".In the Chapter "Growth of Of Settlements "A methodology to  analyse the history of a village of kerala.here the study is named as a theme"age of avillage"The work based on settlement records or the analysis done in the above mentioned thesis by N M Nampoothiri is  not acknowledged by M R Raghava varier  in his work on kerala villages-a plagiurism in the study of Kerala history.(See " keraleeyathayute charithramaananangal "by Mr Varier

2 It took nearly Fourteen years (1974 to 1988) to analyse the village settlements of Calicut based on 200 villages. The analysis was inter disciplinary. Later based on Swaroopam records the political system of Zamorins was analysed .It gradually entered in to the analysis of Cultural evolution studies on the river valley Nila. Ultimately a methodological concept to study the village history was evolved. A case study was brought forward under the assistance of a UGC project during 1998-2001.It is Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer .The area studies are being done to history of larger segments

(a) Indian Toponomy .A critical Evaluation of work done in India with Bibliography of 300 entries of research papers ONOMA, Vol: XXIIIpp; 118-148.1979 (b) Indian Toponymy-A study of Modern Trends with exhaustive Bibliography of 450 entries. PLANS BulletinTrivandrum1985 pp.17-63 (c) Study of Place Names in Kerala: PLANS Trivandrum 1979 Published in 1985{4) & (5):(3) Sthalappeerenna ahalykku Mooksham 1& 2:Malayalanaadu weekly April 1976 Serial Nos 3-1976 April, 4- 1976 April, 5-1981,6-1982,7-1982,8-1982,9-1985,10-1985,11-1987,12-1980,13-1984,14-1985,15-1983,16-1985,17-1979,18-1985,19-1992,20-1986,21-1990,22-1989,23-1994,24-1990,25-1989,26-1990,27-mapingEtc, along with later studies like Araamprom, poottuur kaavu, Vaaniyam kulam and Legacy of Nila project under UGC completed in 2001 are pioneering works in village history. No 1-1979 1st paper on Indian Toponomy in ONOMA, Belgium, No: 2-1985 Indian Toponomy PLANS Trivandrum with BIBLIOGRAPHY 1st attempt in Kerala (All about my work, Maps and Reports Folders)For getting an idea of differences between the approaches of Kerala History in University Text books approved by all Universities in Kerala and ordinary research books based on Area studies based on Toponomy etc content pages of my book ‘Kerala Culture Akavum Puravum’ and the text book are given (Maps and Reports, PhD 1,2)Reviews of my book. Reports on the Inter disciplinary Seminar conducted in 1997 in the ORC SNGS COLLEGE PATTAMBI in media are given here(.Reviews/Nila seminar reports /papers/ Legacy study Infrastructure)Legacy of Nila is a conceptual frame work conceived to extend the Study Of Village Culture Rigorously. UGC project "Cultural Geography and Habitat of Bharathappuzha river valley"(1998-2001)was conducted to develop interdisciplinary approach to the village studies, Area studies and Regional studies The Project was taken up on the basis of the ideas collected from:1.Toponomycal Studies of Calicut And Political history based on Zamorins Records 2.Inter disciplinary study of River valley of Bharathappuzha-The Legacy Of Nila(March 1995) 3.Inter disciplinary Seminar to formulate a methodology considering the Traditional Knowledge of NILA River Valley conducted in1997.8There is only very few palm leaf manuscripts in Vattezhuthu. /Koolezhuthu.The only one Vattezhuthu record is a short one recorded on a bamboo piece. One or two palm leaves were in koolezhuthu which include the Valayanattu Kaimukku Record. The Epigraphist of Calicut University Sri M.R.Raghavavarier deciphered these two and I duly acknowledged it in the reports and descriptive catalogue of the records in 1987(Saamuthiri charithrathile Kanappurangal Vallathol Vidyapeedom ,Sukapuram1987) However Researchers were informed by somebody that all these records are in old scripts (Vatteluthu and kooleluthu) and deciphered all of them in to modern Malayalam by Dr Varrior.It is not true Researchers those who were in need of these records for their works were thus kept away from this unique collection.. All these records are in Malayalam Scripts Ihave helped many researchers to verify them when they approached me with the permission of Vidyapeedom secretary.

 Village studies, Capital city analysis etc is incompletely done by Mr.M .R. Raghavavarier in his Research papers and books without acknowledging earlier works done in toponomy (PhD Thesis Dr N .M.Nampoothiri, 1975-1988) He presented an endowment lecture in the conference of Place Names Society of India (Udippy, 24-4-1992) about Place name studies in Kerala under the title "Village community in pre colonial Kerala." (Total Typed pages: 50. Total foot notes 76 Maps and Reports) He has not mentioned the work completed by me on Calicut village history in 1988. (PhD) The paper is dealing with all the aspects source materials and observations discussed by me in the thesis (1974-1988) A number of papers were also published by me during the period (Works, Summary of pioneering works) .The scholar has left out all these facts and presented every innovative ideas brought out in my works as his own findings. There are more instances to point out at this context. However it is avoided considering Research Ethics.

3Maps, Reports, Paper 33, 34, 35 -----/ /  4  36-62-------/  5   Maps,Reports,Papers----/  6 Cultural Geography and habitat of Bharathappuzha /Nila river valley .Works 7  33, 34, 35-----/8 Kozhikkodan Grandhavarikal9Maps, Reports, Papers 36-6210Maps Reports, Papers11 This is the first of its kind in India Legacy of Nila, Media Reports See evaluation reports of the Thesis by Dr Sbbarayalu,Dr k v Ramesh Etc.12 Maps, Reports, Papers.13 PhD14 Maps, Reports, Papers15 Maps, Reports, Papers16 PhD17 Map, Reports, Papers 24, 63.18 Maps, Reports, Papers 62-7419 Maps, Reports, Papers20 Maps, Reports, Papers 73, 74, 7521 Maps, Reports, Papers22 Maps, Reports,Papers 9-2323Maps,Reports Papers24,63,69,70 24 Maps and Reports: 9 22 25 25Maps,Reports,Papers26,27,28,29:Talappilly Study 30,31,32 25,76 26 (Maps ,Reports,Papers 27 IraanikkalamBrahmin settlement A study, Urban centers of Venaad, Placenames in Chera inscriptions works28 Phd29 Maps,Reports,Papers 1to 9,75,7630 Maps ,Reports ,Papers1-9 Village wise and talukwise31 Maps,Reports,Papers N0:77-8032 Maps Reports,Papers 25, 76, Talappilly Study 30, 31, 32 25, 7632 Maps, Reports,Papers 110,111,112,136 34 (Maps,Reports,Papers No: 64, 65, 66, 71, 75, 81, 82 35.Phd para4.12 to 4.14.4 36 Maps ,Reports,Papers 86to10537 PhD38 Maps, Reports,Papers 102, 103, 104, 105 39 Maps, Reports, Papers, 77 villages are 81,82,71,70 and 83 40 Maps, Reports, Papers121-135 41 Maps, Reports, Papers 113-12042.Keralasamskaaram Akavum PuRavum ,2002 Dr NM Nampoothiri,Pub;Central co-operative Society ,University of Calicut .See Contents Maps,Reports,Papers 43 Maps, Reports, Papers44 PoTTuRkkaavu Aryankaavu KuutalluR-Kotikkunnu, Akavum Puravum45 Maps, Reports, Papers 46 Case study of Aryan kaavu in Vaaniyamkulam vjnaniiyam, Report to UGC 47. Akamvum Puravum.48 PhD49 Lokanar kaavu Maps, Reports, Papers 50 Varakkal Grandhavari Malabar padanangal-Saamoothirinaatu State language institute Trivandrum2007, Heritage of Calicut Mathrubhoomi Publications 2007(Under Publication)51.Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer, Zamorins and temple arts Akavum puravum52 Payyannur paattu,Pettah(Market Festival)was conducted in Erumeli near Sabarimala53 Poottur kaavu, kuutallur, koorranaatu, poyilam Akavum PuRavum Maps, Reports, Papers54 Akavum puravum55 PhD56 Akavum puravum 57 Cranganur Maps, Reports, Papers 58 Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer59 PhD60 Akavum puravum61 Maps, Reports, Papers. 62 Akavum puravum63 University of Calicut 64 PhD, Akavum puravum Maamaanka Rekhakal: Dr N.M Nampoothiri Vallathol Vidyapeedom Sukapuram 2006, Maps, Reports, Papers mamankataTTakam etc65 Saamuuthiri Charitrathile kaanaappurangal, 198766 Village wise and Area wise Maps ,Reports ,Papers 113-120, 76.76.1, 77, 77.1, 102-10567 PhD68 PhD69 Maps ,Reports, Papers PhD70 Aryankaavu, Pottuur kaavu, Kotikkunnu etc Maps, Reports, Papers 71 Akavum Puravumm Vaaniyamkulam, Kotikkunnu Maps, Reports, Papers72 Akavumm PuravumContents Maps, Reports, Papers73 Akavum puravum74 Akavum Puravum, Malayalante Valiyatayaalangal,DC Books Kottayam 2007 75 PhD76 PhD, Maps and reports 105,106, 111,112 77 ( Only Examples of Toponomycal Maps and Reports etc are given in this paper. Their enlarged readable versions are in the link Maps and reports in the Home page.Village studies ,Toponomycal studies Etc are given in BLOG malayaalan .

List of surface investigationsSurface level Area maps of Kaavu taTTakam formations giving distribution of factors with their inter-relations are marked these type of area maps are preparing for the 1st time in history of Kerala. These maps along with studies are published in Souvenirs1 Mukkam 2 Distribution of Koli sufixes etc (suffixes and Prefixes)3 CeeNNamangallur 4 Meenchanda 5 KooTanchery 6 NaaTTupeerukal 7 Calicut studies in general 8Settlement patterns of various Groups of people and factors of Settlements 9 Parihaarapuram 10 Nediyiruppu 11Kottakkal.12 Lokanar kaavu 13 Mint area at Calicut.14Manaasseri 15 .Peerum porulum 16 Mannum manushyanum17 Tirunnavaaya 18 Manmaranja koovilakangal 19 Vella and Vilva mangalam 20 Kuruvayur vaTTom 21 Venganaatu Swaroopam.22 Disentagration of Calicut 23 Aadi Valluvanaatu 24Puthiyagaadi 25 Generaltalk on South malabar 26 Varakkal 27 Kunjali marakkar 27 KodungalluuR 28 Wynad 29 ManaanCira 30 Chinese Street at Calicut 31 Kakkoovu 32 Kaappad and kunjali marakkar 33 kaaveeri 34 Questionaire Nila/Place namesurvey 35 Kulasekharapuram.36 Dutch Kodungallur37 Kuudallur/kodikkunnu 38 Edappl Ponnani 39 Salt and Calicut 39 Vayyavinaatu 40 vijnanacintamony 41Musiris 42 Udayamperoor 43 Perumpadappu 44 Alleppuzha and Boatsongs.and Boatrace 45 Agricultural songs 44 koratty mutthy See part II and Maps,Reports,Paper in the HOMEPAGE

 

                                    TOPONYMICAL STUDIES -I

                                          CALICUT DISTRICT

                                                    THE LEGACY OF NILA

                   CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY AND HABITAT OF NILA RIVER VALLEY

                                                   Village studies and urban studies

                                                            Methodology Summary

                                                                         I

1  Need of new perspectives in Kerala studies

Toponyms of Calicut was my research subject .The period of my research was 1974-1988.It was supported with my own finding 'The Calicut grandhavaris'(Zamorins Palace records )These records were verified in 1978 and transferred to Vallathol Vidyapeedom Sukapuram legaly. Calicut studies is based on Toponymy, Grandhavaris and field work data...Toponomycal analysis was based on Revenue settlement records,Ceerikkal accounts, and Paimashy records etc.The work was Micro Toponymy because it was based on Field names or plot names given in the British settlement records . All these source materials and their interdisciplinary use were for the first time in Cultural studies. Later in 1997 The topic The Legacy of Nila river valley was taken up as a continuation of Calicut Studies It lead to the preparation of Cultural history of vilages.Vaaniyamkulam Vijnaniiyayam is first of its kind in India .The work is being continued and many area studies are brought out. Now it is time to publish a paper on the new methodology conceived in the study of Village history, Area history, Regional history etc. It is seen that some scholars are publishing the ideas put forward by me without acknowledging the works done by me in these fields for the first time. The best examples are some of the Toponymycal works and observations of Dr. M .R.Raghavavarior and Panchayth Vijnaniiyam of Vaaniyamkulam published by The Kerala Council for Historical Research, Trivandrum in 2002. Village study under the Legacy of Nila started in1995 march Vaaniyamkulam study started in 1997.But KCHR is silent about it.KCHR is silent about the Calicut Village Studies too.Dr Varrior in his Kerala history 1990 or in his Endowment lecture in(see details in notes)1993 is silent about works.

Toponymycal identification of ‘Feroke fort area’ built by Tippu Sultan in Calicut was my first area study. Various Type of areas were later analysed for Toponymycal studies which was done2-12-1973 It is discussed in part II of this Monograph .

Through many surveys of area studies of primary nature based on various source materials were prepared .Other scholars did not use these sources hitherto. Toponomical data of settlement records etc and the associated evidences are very important examples. The use of such sources was inter disciplinary. Quantitative analyses, Maping of the area and preparation of frequency table of toponymycal data etc were also the new methodological changes brought through the toponymycal studies of Calicut Such studies were only surface level works and segmental studies.

The intention was to Correlate and corroborate other data and to bring out an Organic Study from Segmental studies -A New Perspective to Studies in Kerala Culture. Many researchers and Historians brought out Works under the title of History of Kerala. But the contents of the books are totally related to Political History only.

The periods and Topics discussed in these works prove the limitations of the available studies in Kerala culture.

1.BC 1100toB C 500-Pre historic period. Most important evidences are Burials

2.From 300 BC to300A D-Sangham Period Rule of 1st Cheras.

3 From 300AD to 800 A D--- Dark period. Not analysed by historians because there are no direct evidences

4 During A D 800--- There was Brahmin migration. (According to the historians this was the root cause of all social evils in Kerala)

5 From 800AD to1100AD--- 2nd Chera (Kulasekharas of Cranganur) Period

6 From 1100D to 1498 AD --- Dark Period, Origin of Swaruupams: Venad, Perumpadappu, Nediyiruppu, Koolathunaatu.

7 From 1500AD to 1792AD---Britsh Period

It was Prof Elamkulam who made the first attempt to write about major issues related to Kerala history .But he never attempted to address dark periods. According to him there were no direct evidences to analyse the history of dark periods .He never thought of common people, settlements, markets ,network of Sacred groves ,family systems ,customs and manners and such direct and indirect evidences. Such evidences were a part of Comprehensive historiography. Dr Hermann Gundert made an attempt to study “malayaala Rajya Caritram” in 1844 .A D. Elamkulam failed to give the history of the period of Swaroopams also even though Grandhavaries were enormous.

It was because he neglected the uTayavars and other lower and local administrative factors of the Kulasekhara rulers It was not analysed by later historians like Dr M G S Narayanan too. Every body was misleading by Elamkulams distorted theory of Brahmin influence. According to Elamkulam content of Kerala history were Political leaderships and their moral supporters -The Brahmins and their Nampoothiri Grama settlements. The uTaiyavars were transformed to Swaroopams after the downfall of Kulasekheras. It was not a problem of Kerala History put forward by Elamkulam and hence there were no analysis of it is done by historians .So we lost the discussions of the Evolutionary changes took place during the Kulasekhara period or of the later Swaroopa administration period Actually we neglected the social history.

It is clear that History of the people is not even touched in these topics.

So a new investigation was started based on toponymycal data as Janapdapadanam or Settlement studies. It was taken up to understand The Social History and Cultural History of Malayala Naatu. The investigations based on

Toponomy was gradually developed through many stages .They are

(i) Calicut Toponomy

(ii) The Legacy of Nila

(iii) Cultural Geography and Habitat of Bharathappula river valley.

(iv) Village studies.

(v) Area studies.

(vi) Regional studies

These studies are generally termed as Janapadanam or settlement studies. Research Papers of Serial Nos1 to 31(works)1 and a number of other papers and notes where Toponymycal data is used in various ways in my studies reveal the Evolution of the methodology in the study of Village history in Kerala.2

                                                                  II

2 Toponymy and Calicut Studies

The Toponymycal study of Calicut was taken up in 1974.The topic was "A study of Place names in the Calicut District: Calicut, South Wynad, Quilandy and Badagara Taluks" .Calicut DistrictCollector promoted the Research by issuing orders to all taluk officers to distribute The Questionnaire. Prepared by me (Maps, Reports, Papers 33 34,35)3

Maps given here are of primary nature. When the study of toponomy of Calicut started in 1977 based on settlement records (Maps, Reports,Papers 36-62)4 each and every data was entered in village maps and taluk maps to see the distribution patterns of each cultural factor. By 1980 most of the toponymycal maps of Calicut (Various folders Maps ReportsPapers)5were prepared these new maps are more than 300 in number. Toponymycal study and cultural analysis was completed based on the pattern study of maps, tables of various kind, and Quantitative analysis. No source material is available to study social or political situations of Kerala Villages or Areas or Regions. Our source materials are limited to some inscriptions, foreign notices and Tamil literary works. Again, we didn’t depended inter disciplinary approach in the study of cultural history. (Cultural Geography and habitat of Bharathappuzha /Nila river valley Works)6 Such a study was started with this study of toponomy in 1974(Maps, Reports,Papers 33, 34, 35)7 Thus an attempt was made to study the early stages of Evolution of Kerala Culture in a manner hitherto not considered. The map study and pattern study is of great help in analyzing Kerala Culture even from the Origin of Human habitation in the villages. There are certain limitations in the work. These are to be rectified by more scientific studies, sharing of knowledge method, participatory Research Etc. This was also done in1997 under the UGC project. Legacy of Bharathappuzha River valley The in-depth “HOME WORK” was done to understand the toponymycal sources and their dimensions in the Kerala context. It was done in many ways. At the beginning an exhaustive survey was taken up to evaluate the work done in India in the field of Toponomy. Surprisingly it is noticed that all aspects of human life are reflected in this source material. This evaluation report was submitted to PhD preliminary Examination in 1977.

When I discussed the matter with my Professor Dr. Ezhuthachan K.N., he directed me to verify land records of chieftaincies along with their other political recodes. He was very particular to find out The Zamorins record “KOZHIKKODAN GRANTHAVARIKAL”8 . He gave me official support for it along with Dr C.P.Achuthan Unni. Iwas able to locate these records in 1978 and submitted a detailed report to him. Later I reported the matter to Dr M.G.S Narayanan, H/D, and Dept of History. University of Calicut (Zamorins Grandhavarikal)

Dr. Puthussery Ramachandran was my Examiner for Preliminary PhD. He gave very valuable suggestions to analyse the names. One of his Suggestions was to trace back the form of the name with the help of archival records. This was the initiative to examine early records kept in the Regional archives, Calicut.

Dr. M.G.S. Narayanan took initiative to include me as member Place name society of India, Mysore. He gave me suggestions to study village names as well as other local names, and to use field survey in the work. Dr. Kesavan veluthat suggested Quantitative analysis in the study.

Another important turning point in the research was the verification of the archival materials of regional archives in Calicut.Sri P.K.Gopi, the present Registrar of Center for Heritage studies; Trippunithura was among the staff members of the archives in 1978. He pointed out to me that there are records of each village prepared by British administrators in 1890 with village maps. Even though there were field names in the land records of Granthavaris, the whole field names with details were not in such records. Mr. Gopi was opening an important Source material to study not only toponomy but also to the study SOCIALHISTORY and LOCAL HISTORY.He gave me the A-Registers or Settlement Registers for taking notes. It .was the beginning of a model study of history put forward by me (Maps,Reports,Papers 36-62)9

It was Sri N .N. Kakkad who suggested the analysis of the urban situations in each village. He directed me to do this at grass root level in the study of CALICUT PORT AND FORT areas. It was to be done on the basis of. Modern Urban studies of the western countries and Silpa texts (Vastu Sastra) of Indian tradition (Maps Reports,Papers)10 The analysis was done under his Guidance. The knowledge about the relation between Vastusastra and planning of villages, Capital cities, rajadhani, Towns, Dwelling places Etc are obtained to me even earlier when the famous writer Sri G.N.Pillai gave me a book for Review in Mathrubhoomi Weekly. It was a publication of the university of Kerala .The name of the work is TECHNICAL LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT. (1978). There is a study on Bhojas works by the famous Researcher Dr K.Raghavan.”Bhojas Contribution to Sanskrit literature.”(P144-170) I reviewed the book in the Mathrubhoomi Vol no38, Feb Dt: 10-16,Book no 57) the study deals with Samarankana sutra dhara and Yukti kalpa tharu of Bhoja. N N Kakkad gave me a vastu text of Sri Kooyithatta. In 1979.based on this have prepared a vast map of Calicut Ramadan and in 1981 it was published in the city directory of Calicut Corporation. This is the first of its kind in India11

                                                                       III

3  Settlement Study or Janapdapadanam Village Study

Valappu ( Fields) TaRa/kara(Unit of a group of settlements of martial group) Kutikal (A unit of settlements of labour class) Desham(Villages) Pradesham/taTTakam (Groupoffillages/AreaTaluks) Naatu (Regions/Districts) UrbanComplexes/Groups-Groups of settlements based on Urban Factors

TOPONYMYCAL MAPS:(Maps , Reports,Papers)12

(MAPS are prepared on the basis of toponymycal evidences prepared N M Nampoothiri.Rf; Astudy of place names in Calicut Dist: Phd Thesis University of Calicut 1988 All Toponymical Maps are prepared for the first time in Kerala studies.

First map of a city VAASTHU(Silpa Sastra Map) ever prepared in India. (Phd)13Maps are prepared based on Revenue maps of the earliest available-1892.A D

NOTES TO FOLLOW TOPONOMICAL MAPING(Maps,Reports,Papers)14

1 Toponymycal study in Kerala: Some Basic Principles

It needs exhaustive fieldwork. Analysis must be based on interdisciplinary principlesIt needs preparation of various kind of data distribution Maps, density and frequency tables. These are to be prepared on the basis Micro toponyms. Preparation of Charts, Geometrical figures, Etc are also necessary Kerala villages are dispersed in type-not centralized as other areas in the main land It is because each and every segment of the land is fertile and habitat ional. During the Land settlement of British period in 1892-1903 village settlement Registers are prepared including village maps. These Maps are to be used for preparing cultural registers of villages. Cultural factors can be consolidated from Micro Toponyms (Prefixes and Suffixes; distribution of them in village wise, Area wise, and Region wise) spread in the Settlement records (Maps, Reports,Papers)15

The name of each field is given in the S.Register with sub divisions. Each village supplies 1000-2000 toponyms, which covers all factors, related to culture. Since these are Revenue records, they are authentic and collected from villagers. Changes in the names will affect the property right. Thus maximum care is taken in the preparation of the toponyms and other details given in the registers. All details are entered in Malayalam and English. All these aspects are discussed in the “ “Study of Place Names in the Calicut District”(PhD)16

Along with this, earlier records are also to be verified to find out changes of toponyms occurred during the years. Ceerickkal Records of Swaroopams, Temple Records, Land records of feudal families, Paimashi records of Tippu and Haider Ali Etc are also to be evaluated. (Various kinds of micro enquiries under other titles and themes in other pages of web site malabarandkeralastudies.net)

Toponymycal study is dealt in various angles in the works. Each segmental study is important to bring out an organic study Toponomy of Calicut, Palace records of Zamorins of Calicut, Legacy of Bharathappuzhza and model village study is interrelated.

                                                                  

 

                                                                             IV

Segmental studies

1 Micro segments-paRampu: vayal and valappu

Map study

Various kinds of maps are available from various departments. All these maps are drawn accurately with scientific Scales. These maps can be used to prepare Toponomical Sketches, distribution maps o various cultural factors Etc Area/Regional /aerial maps give details of large areas. Aerial maps of port Calicut and extension of it to Araambrom near Kunnamagalam is an example. (Map ,Reports,Papers 24,63.)17 If we trace necessary items separately it will show distribution of various items marked in the map which can be effectively in an interdisciplinary way .The study thus become a pioneering one and gives details hither too un noticed. Eg. Maps of Mamankam Thattakam, Logans resource maps, Vaaniyamkulam maps, Kulamukku /Kuutallur maps, Poottuur kaavu maps, maps of Gama’s Route restructured based on Calicut Corporation map of large Scale The same map is used to identify Route of Royal Journey of Zamorins of Calicut in the city Calicut. These roads existed in 17th c: A.D as noticed in the Zamorins record. These routes are even now exists in Calicut City. It can be identified in the Revenue taluk maps, R.village maps Etc(Maps,Reports,Papers62-74)18

. Revenue village maps and Taluk maps are used for more micro studies. Taluk maps are used to distribute Toponymycal factors identified. Identification is made taking each village map and corresponding data separately. Details of archaeological data collected from a village based on toponomy are noted in the village map initially. All such maps are linked/used to form a distribution map of Archeological. Toponyms of pre- historic sites are seen in large scale in villages. These are 1st human habitation areas. These pre historic sites, toponyms signifying aboriginals distributed around these sites, uuR settlements around them and a worshipping center -Kaavu, Etc- Clearly bring out a SETTLEMENT of centralized pattern. It can be seen that large number of settlements are distributed in the Calicut Taluk (Maps,Reports,Papers)19. Later-urbanizing discussions can be done based on this basic pattern of HUMANHABITATION in the taluk. Distribution maps of various factors are prepared and they are given in Maps and reports. Compare the tribal map of Kerala based on other sources and the Toponymycal maps. (Maps, Reports,Papers 73,74,75)20

Village Settlement Records1890-1902

British Settlement records were used for study of Toponomy and analysis of Kerala culture was used for the first time by this Researcher in the Calicut Studies .It lead to a turning point in the study of Kerala culture namely “ JANAPADAPADANAM”. 200villages wearer analyzed i Calicut Talk and it was correlated and corroborated by various toponymycal and historical evidences. Later the study is extended to NilaRiver valley Valley, Panchayath vijnaniiyam, Village culture,and Local history Studies.

Methodology to study Village Culture is based on toponomy. It is clearly evidenced from toponymycal studies in CALICUT that if studied scientifically, village cultural situations can be brought out. But study of a single village can give only incomplete ideas. Thus it has to be linked to next village in the dispersed settlement. Such segmental studies when scientifically incorporated to the theme CULTURAL EVOLUTION. It will bring out the organic study of an area or PRADEESHAM. It can be extended to a ‘Region’. Ultimately it will lead to the in-depth study of Kerala Culture. Thus study of a small village based on Toponomy and Basic record of settlements is JANAPADAPADANAM (Settlement studies). Settlement Records, which consist of all relevant cultural Signifiers. The problem of study of early period is always a difficult analysis. Here we are not analyzing a political history. Political history is only a segment of the Total Culture. Thus we have changed our concept of history. History/Culture is to be analyzed from the basic problem “Settlement”. It is JANAPADAM.We have to identify the following cultural factors

· Topography/geography / Original settlements./ Tribes/aborigines/ distribution of Prehistoric evidences / Shrines and worshipping centers/ Tarawards/theirEconomic and political backgrounds /Migrations of Various Groups People/Urban situations /Political interferences/ Changes of political interferences Etc

                                                                           V

Micro Segments Desha padanam

Araamprom Village - Model study

1 Araamprom settlement Record is reproduced here( maps 36-62,9-23)

(Maps,Reports,Papers)21

In page number 2 of the register field numbers 1 To 5 are important. They signify

(a) A stable settlement Uur-nampannuuR.and karippuuR

(b) A palli -an early shrine or /a stable settlement/ a kaavu or a worshipping center.

(c) A kotta kkal is mentioned. It may be a site of a female Deity/A Jaina relation may have been there.

(d) Another deity name is pottan. This deity has a kaavu or shrine.

(e) Manna’s are seen living in the vicinity. They are aboriginals. They have there own shrines. Even today they are Velichappat's of shrines of Bhagavathi kaavu in many areas. In kulamukku/Kotikkunnu/Palliprom areas still this situation exist. Recent surveys proved it. These areas are on the banks of Bharathappuzha in Kuutallur.

(f) A toponyms ampalam is mentioned. It also represents a temple, in this particular context. It may also mean a place were traders come and take rest-Valiyampalam.

There was a stable settlement of uuR. There was early type of worshipping centers. There lived aboriginals like manna an Etc.

Probably there were Jain traders who were inland traders. The village is near to Kinaaluur, a near by Jana settlement connected to Thirukkunavay of Kodungalluur.The trade route crossing the village goes to Wynaad, an important center of Jainism.

Ampalam and kooTTa-both might had relation to this jaina .The later phase of Great Culture is reflected in the ownership of land and shrines, Thus Economic Geography and Anthroponomy help us to see the Evolution. Kaavu, ampalam, koottaEtc is seen owned by Hindu Upper class FAMILIES (This bring out the importance of Study of Family history.) like Katakamvelli moosad, Nampannuurazhakil Nair Meeppalli Atithirippad Etc. These are representatives of Great culture. Muslims in the same area own a few fields. Thus we see different layers of Evolution super imposing gradually the earliest settlement.

All these circumstantial evidences prove that there was a settlement of comparatively early period and it was gradually changing its heritage (Maps,Reports,Papers 9-23)22

Preparation of tables of toponyms is discussed in the Paper Toponyms of the names of fields taken for various tables are the Suffixes or Second part of it. Nampannuur can be Splitted in to NampannuuR were uur is the suffix. Such suffixes are put to quantitative analysis.

Their distribution pattern is also studied entering them in Maps Thus there are two types of Pattern Maps are to be prepared. 1. Maps of Prefixes 2.Maps of Suffixes .they are to be analysed preparing different patterns in maps/frequencies/density etc. All items are to be discussed here in detail.

                                  

                                                                         VI

From Micro segment studies to Organic study

VaLappu studies To Desham studies

Araamprom Revenue records and pattern Maps

Araamprom is at the center of the CalicutTaluk, (Maps,Reports Papers24,63,69,70)23 close to the Kunnamangalam village. Villages are grouped on the basis of Distribution of Urban factors. There are complexes (Urban centers), Groups (Semi Urban centers) Clusters, single villages rural units Etc as per the urban principles. This classification of an area is made at the beginning itself for which each village is put in to analysis one by one. Villages with Common /Parallel situations in distribution of Urban Factors are Grouped together and put to Quantitative analysis. Details of historical, geographical and many other situations are collected from survey, field works and other evidences of various sources. Thus the work is Inter-disciplinary as well as Multi- disciplinary. Thorough knowledge of all factors, their inter-actions, parallel situations etc are all to be at hand of the researcher .He has to repeat his analysis. Draw maps of each and every factor. These type of repeated enquiry and primary analysis is a continuous process .As noted earlier the problem to decide the Jana presence or Tribal settlement situations and other situations are to be further enquired .So, this type of analysis is very heavy and complex .It is thus to be taken up in the way of Sharing of Knowledge and Participatory research .It is implemented through Oriental Research center SNGS College Pastrami, Under the UGC project Legacy of Nila. (1995-2001) More than two hundred villages under investigation of the taluk are around this village. Thus Araamprom is the Nucleus of the taluk with hinterland area of 200 villages in this hinterland area there are Urban complexes, Urban Groups, Storage centers Etc.Beyond this hinterland area there exist mainland and maritime space .The study gradually enters into Area study, Regional study etc. Here the village is only a rural unit and hence such studies need not be taken up. The village is apart of the Calicut Port and thus its hinterland.

Distribution of Micro segments:Maping

Araamprom Maps

Distribution pattern maps are given.

(Maps and Reports: 9-23)24

Map: 9

Field map given in the revenue settlement record.

Details of the field numbers given in the map are entered in the record as noted before. Each field has a main number in the map .In the register each field has many sub divisions and each of them has separate field name. Apart from this in the last part of the register a special ownership of fields in table forms are given. There also micro- subdivisions are given. Each micro sub division has separate name.

Details of quality of soil, water sources such as river, ponds, canals, markets paddy fields, hills, hillocks, Structures such as temples shrines, ownership, type of ownership, devaswom, brahmaswom etc are all given in the register along with many other factors All these factors are to be entered into maps or and analyzed Tables are also to be prepared as noted before. In this map Field nos 1,2,3,4,47,50,51 are areas of 1st settlement. These fields are close and in the form of a cluster Area covered is large, which is mentioned in the Distribution maps.

Map: 10

In this map Micro fields are noted, since there is no boundary lines to these sub divisions. It is approximately marked with different colours. In Field No 4 there are four sub fields. Ampalam (temple or resting place) cenachan (field of cenachan-cenachan may an anthroponym or some thing related to Jaina s) ampalakkanTi puRaayi (Extension of ampalakkanti) karippuuru puraayi (uuR in the black soil-Fertile field-Stable settlement is close by; it is its puraayi or Extension) these types of micro toponyms are to be taken for analysis. There is a kooTTakkal-aplace near kooTTa. KooTTA may be protective measure of medieval period when kalari -kalam-and an attached bhagavathi worshipping shrine were distributed in the territory of the chieftaincy. There is a kaavu is seen close to the paddy field No5 the kaavu seems to be in the vicinity. the paddy field is taazhe or below. There is a paRacceri in Field no: 7, which denote the presence of paRaya settlement. It is a ceeri. Thus there is uuR along with ceeri. The ceeri is the settlement of occupational classes according to some scholars. Ampalakkanti (Subfld no: 4) denotes the location of later temple. However such a structure is not marked in the Remarks column of the Register. sub Fld no: 3of Fld no: 5 is uur-Karippuuru paRampu. This field is upper tableland. In subFld no: 2 there lives mannaan, an aboriginal group.

Map: 17

In this map microtoponymical data and Revenue data are entered for comparison. Field numbers 1 to 9 is only attempted. Field no: 1 is 8.76 acres. It belongs to KaTakamveLLi moosad.moosad is a temple community and hence a temple occupational class. There is a possibility to exist a temple in the vicinity .in other places even temples complexes are seen were temple occupational classes are seen settled close to the temple. It means that presence of a moosad, vaariar, maaraar etc-in general temple communities-suggest the presence of a worshipping center nearby and vice versa. Presence of chetty”s, taTTaan”s etc are also suggestive of such factors related to them and vice versa. The name of the house (name of the paRampu Field) is Vaazheel.It can be a linguistic variation of “vaakkeel”. Sashay Valhi is a title of officers who administered temple properties in the medieval period. Thus this moose seems to be one among such authorities. Other studies related to property holdings prove that he was one of the major families there. Field no: 2 belonged to aaraamprom illom .It denotes the presence of a Brahmin Family. The area of the field is 9 .37 acres. In this field there exists Kaavu, kooTTa etc moolamannu of this field might have some relation to “origin” of the 1st settlement or presence of mother Goddess or even Swayambhu deity. Field no3 belonged to cave-In fled No: 4 there is a signifier of ampalam, ceNachaN, and two uuR”s. The names suggest that it is a fertile area for cultivation of paddy. The suggestion is already there that Brahmins select fertile valleys to settle. Temples are also distributed in such areas. Thus a temple or a Brahmin settlement suggests fertile areas and vice versa. In field no 5there lives the aboriginals-mannanmar. Ownership of the field goes to ampalam.their settlement is uuR. Thus uuR is a suggestive term for such original indigenous settlements. The area of the field is11.81acres.In field no 6 there is one our as already suggested this toponyms signifies the presence of tribal settlements or settlements of aboriginals. Here there is a large settlement of paRayaas. There is a large ceeri of this tribe. A ceTTi settlement is also in the field. The area of the field is 10.47 acres. The explanation is interred related. And it needs in-depth familiarity with many factors of human life

There are. Fields which are newly created, prepared, transformed or newly changed for some purpose.14.47 acres of land in field no 7 reflect this activity .it might be taken place sometime ago or currently. But changes are brought by settlers is a fact and when they make changes it s re-named. In this field name the “change” is reflected. It may be because somebody might have constructed anew hose as the name is puthiyaviittilàputhiyooTTil.puthiya=new, viiTTil=house. In the list of names given last of the register there are more sub divisions entered.there are two toponyms “puthukkudy”. It means that new houses/huts were constructed to live. Thus puthiya viitil is a name reflecting the same feature. In general the situation shows that there are new settlements are coming up. KuTi in puthukkuTi means “New house”.

In areas were temple, kaavu etc are seen (Field no1 to 9) migration is taken place. These are fertile upper tablelands and migration is natural. Here it is seen that migrated settlers are Muslims. They are generally maritime trade groups Mokkath Ussan aaji, tekkeel aalikkuTTy ammathu kuTTI, taravaTTattu kooyaamu thukuTTi, othayoottha amath, naalu kanTattila vasilal karrippuR assan are landowners of this area.

In the revenue map there are only 9 fields. They are land units. These 9 fields have Thirty-sub divisions .In the special list there are seven more sub divisions. Each micro division has its own name. More than forty prefixes suggestive of various cultural factors are there. In the someway there are many suffixes thus the cultural dimensions of the area can be discussed at grassroots level.

 

Map13/Map18

This distribution map gives Topographycal and geographical details. Suffixes are the major toponyms Distribution of vayal, and kantom are comparatively few. These are fertile paddy fields. Paramus or upper tablelands there are 15 acres of wetland. But Dry garden land is 156 acres. This is the same trend of topography obtained from distribution pattern of Toponyms also. Yellow coloured space in the map is tablelands. Toponym pula is seen on the border areas of the village. River course is marked in the border in Ramp also It is interesting to note that vayal or fertile paddy field is seen close to river course or they are in the areas where toponyms kuli, taTom, etc are distributed They denote low lands. Unfertile marshy areas, saline soil areas, sandy-rocky-areas etc are reflected in the toponyms. Large dry and forested areas denoted by kaaTu are seen.

First stable settlement is seen in field 42,49,51,4,3,1,2,5,41areas where fertile fields exist along with water facility. This area seems to be the top most tablelands in the village. The slope of the land is from all sides of the settlement towards north-south-west and east. Near to the settlement kunnu (hillocks) mala (Hills) are suggested by toponyms. It can be assumed that according to the Topographical and Geographical situations Resources of the village is Cash crops and natural resources. Area where paaRa (Rock) poRRa (waste land) is denoted, there is toponyms paazhuuR. It means the area is unfertile. The natural resources such as hard Laterite are available. A toponym “poN “ suggestive of soil with gold content or precious stone is seen. The presence of Cetti”s, migration of Muslims etc shows the probability of local trade /exchange center. In the primary settlement area there are toponyms like Cami, Cenachan, acchan, etc which are supportive in assuming a Jaina migration in the area.

Map 20/ 19

Maps 18,19,20 are the earliest (1977) Toponymical distribution maps of a village Prepared related to Kerala studies

In map 18 factors distributed are: -Muslim owned Land: Holdings of Major families, Mosques, Cheruvannuur devaswom lands, (this temple is in the village close to Araamprom) Large Ezhava holdings, Nair, kurup family moosad, Araambrom mana holdings, Nampoothiri holdings, and mannan family holdings.

Chettis, jains and paraya groups have no land holdings in the area even though their presence is noted in names. Anthroponomy and suggestions of other type of names are

Taken here for observations.

Map 21

1 uur-Indication of first settlement. F 41,5,6,

2 Vayal, kantom nilam-Fertile paddy fields. F 29,30,42,6,5,51,12.27,30

3 Puzha -River course.55, 5,12.

4 Caalu-Rivulet.F 12

5 Kuli, taale tatom, aalu-low lands.saline fields 14,16,11,43,42,49,55,

6 Kalli-Dry uncultivable barren land.paRRa-barren rocky field. F 53.

7 mala-Hill F13, 15.

8 Kunnu-Hllocks F 23,26.

9 paara-RockF 9,7.

10 kaaTu tottam paRampu, kanti, kuti, -vast upper tableland /garden large areas.

11 Lands.poN, poNkiraali, cempaRa, para, presence of sand/rock with gold content. F 16,9,40,41,43,32.

Map 22

This map is a distribution map of various factors. They are

1 Pottaakkaavu-Ashrine of tribal diety “poTTaN” .F2, 3,

2 PullooRakkaavu-a shrine of tribes on the sides of hills/hillocks F: 15,14.

3 KoTa-A term probably: koTa signifier of pre historic site is reflected in Field No: 54.This need not be such a site F 54

4 Peeruura-This toponym suggests periya or Large or old settlement. Usually peruur indicate a Siva temple in that place F: 40.

5 Karippuura-uur, a settlement in the fertile land. F: 5,6.

6 PutukkuTi-New settlements.9, 15.

7 Putucceeri-New settlements of occupational groups. Here the field name in full is ceNanmaaR kaNti. Hence it may be a settlement of Jainas.F 47,11,13,4,56.aarya/accan - A term probably related to Jains .F: 56,4,11,13,47.

8 PaRacceri-settlement of paRayas-aboriginal Group.F7, 39

9 MannanmaR-aboriginals F46, 42,4,5.

10 VeTTuvaN-Tribals engaged in salt panning settlement is near riverbank. F13.

11 Pon-area where golden soil or such precious things are available. Rocky, sand dust with gold content. F 40,32,43,9,16

12 taccan-Carpenter/gold smith. F40, 39.

13 CeTTI-Trders from Tamil/Telugu areas. They are trade groups. F: 7,26.

14 Matom-the field is close to ceNaNmar kanti and hence it shows a residential structure of Jains.F: 56.

15 Ampalam-Temple/resting place like vazhiyampalam. F4, 5.

16 MeeNkuzhi-Fish cultivating tank. F11-It is on the bank of river.

17 Aaryaaprom-Original name of aaraampRom illom, where Brahmins reside

                                                               VII

Araamprom study Sample Surveyreport

(Maps,Reports,Papers26,27,28,29:Talappilly Study 30,31,32 25,76)25

The note was prepared to suit a sample survey model. All the villages are to be scanned in this way and detailed notes are to be prepared as given here along the explanations to he maps. A number of maps can be prepared depending upon the interdisciplinary and multi disciplinary approach taken and the collection of various source materials. The primary condition s is 1.the researcher must have rigorous background of various branches of knowledge and local situations. Without it is impossible to interrelate different aspects of cultural evolution. 2.A thorough knowledge of indigenous cultural factors is also necessary. We have to inter relate these factors on the basis of other scientific observations on the same subject. considering local variations.3.Maping system along with quantitative analysis methods are a desideratum. Certain very important problems also can be analysed in the methodology discussed here A sample survey report on Talappilly taluk on the southern bank of Bharatha ppuzha is given here.

Key to open unintelligible toponyms

In toponymycal studies clear meanings of each words-suffix /prefix/name in full when suffix and prefix combined together. It is a” Study Of Language”. Therefore we have to study contemporary forms of names and their earlier forms. Here we have take up the special situations in Kerala. (Maps ,Reports,Papers)26

1 The land records in Kerala are very important in this investigation. It is found that most of the land/field names are still exist without any linguistic variation. It is proved beyond doubt in the investigation of Stone inscriptions. (See inscriptions. Iraanikkalam study, urban centers of Venaad/Travancore, placenames in chera inscriptions Etc dealt with in various stages of the works)27 2 The names mentioned in literary works are still there without any variations. Family names and field names are there. Which are clearly identifiable. (Zamorins recods, Lokanar Kavu records, poyilam/unniyacci, unniyaati /sandesamsEtc)

3 In this circumstances most of the names and location of the field itself can be identi fied.changes occurred in the fields can be decided. Changes of the topography, geography etc can be noted. Change of ownership, accumulation of wealth etc are also can be studies Toponymical identification is Identification of comprehensive history and culture of Malayalans.It leads us to MalayaalaRajya charithram.

4 This is the methodology used in the thesis (Phd)28 There are many unintelligible toponyms. Here many types of pattern studies are to be used. Here it comes the need of Quantitative analysis and preparation of pattern maps We have already discussed how Evolution of Culture can be studied incorporating various aspects in toponymycal method of analysis. Here we have to see the method to get a scientific way to open unintelligibl suffixes/prefixes (Toponyms)(Maps,Reports,Papers 1to 9,75,76)29

                                                                       VIII

Field wise distribution of suffixes and prefixes

Micro Toponyms-VaLappukal

Calicut taluk: - Villages: 180-Palali, 184-Cheruvati, 162-Mannur, 183-Atuvaat, 6-Kannankara, 76-Kayal, 38Nagaram, 181-Kalpalli, 182-Mavoor, 80-Katalunti, 35-Kommeeri, 41Natuvattom, 156-Manakkattu puram, 1-Elathuur, 3-Thalakkulathur, 43-Cheruvathuur, 69-Veliparampu, 154-Anayamkunnu, 129-Katavathhuur, 42-Beypore

As pointed out earlier distribution of the same suffix in different villages, in different Geographical Belts I, II, and III and generally in the taluk is to be analysed and meanings of the locked suffixes are to be unlocked through pattern studies for evolving a distribution pattern study scientifically. Sample study of some suffixes is given in map study and their analysis. (Maps ,Reports ,Papers1-9 Village wise and talukwise)30

The distribution pattern of vaipus in villages Chromate, Manuur, Atuvat, kayal, and kanankara, Palali, nagaram, and kalpally are given in a set of maps. Vaippu is a land newly formed or emerged from rivers; large lakes or sea is clear from the distribution of the suffix allover the taluk. The taluk is has a hilly track, a midland and a coastal low land. For the convenience of the study the divisions are given the titles GB I, GB II and GB III.respectively. Other suffixes are mukkam and mokkam.there is difference in the distribution. One term is seen used to denote Road +water course junction. Other is used to denote Road+Road junction. Katavattuur, Parampathkaavu, Veliparampu, Kommeeri, and Veppuur are the villages discussed. These villages are also distributed in the three belts.

uNTi and KaTaluNTi are the suffixes of much importance. It is said that Catalonia was the Toni, capital city or Early Cherisher the distribution of toponyms in villages Mucking (Banks of Akalappuzha in Quilandy taluk) Karannuur Kalpally near Chaliyar, Etc are given.kaTalunti paRampu is seen in these villages. So it is to be assumed that the name is a Hydronymic one and it is distributed widely in the Calicut and other taluks. Thus cannot be taken as the early capital of cheras. The locational peculiarity of the term is that these are in promontory sites.

Talukwise distribution shows that the terms uNti, Thunti Koozhi are of high density in GBIII.in Nagaram, ElathuR and on banks of Kallai River they are very dense.

Near the Kasbah and Nagaram villages ennappaTom, a suffix signifying “Natural Oil “is seen. Here it is noted by the British soil surveyors that there is oil content in the soil on the banks of Kallai River, close to its mouth.

Koozhi is a term highly distributed in the Taluk.There is more than 170 terms. Distributed in the taluk. All of them are in promontory areas and hydronimic in nature. Very peculiar nature of the term is seen in Villages Thalakkulathur Elathur Cheruvannur Nagaram and Beypore areas. This term later became the Name of a coastal strip of land. It came to be known as koozhikkooTu.

Taluk wise distribution of Cali caali etc is entered in (Maps,Reports,Papers N0:77-80)31 these are Toponyms signifying marshy areas. The distribution clearly shows that such large marshes are widely distributed in coastal Belt.

(Talappally Taluk studies There are two model maps and model Tables prepared based on village names. Deforestation, Problems related to water resources etc are discussed based on toponomy (Maps Reports,Papers 25, 76, Talappilly Study 30, 31, 32 25, 76)32

TOPONYMICAL STUDIES Part ii

                                                                  IX

  From Micro Field Segments to Macro Area Segments: organic study

                              AREA STUDY AND REGIONAL STUDY--1

(i) Village study was based on micro Toponymy But distribution of some Suffixes is extended to Area wise and regional wise (Taluk wise and District wise) pattern analysis.

This has to be extended to all villages in a particular area .Let us consider the same unit already noted in Araamprom studies“ Basic settlement” for further analysis

This has many factors to interrelate. Major factors are Uur settlements, Pre-historic signifiers in toponyms, Tribes/aboriginals, indigenous worshipping centers. Etc.These factors in all villages are at first identified. Then each “unit” of settlement is marked in each village map. Then small areas such as two or three villages are analyzed; they are grouped into form an area study.

(ii) Such area studies when extended to more villages necessitated accounting of many other factors reflected by toponyms. They are also taken in to account and hence various kinds of Village Groupings (Areas) emerged out. They are generally factors of later Evolutionary stages of Social formation and cultural evolution.

1Distribution of uuR, Tribes, Shrines, Prehistoric sites Etc in a group of villages. Which are close together. (Distribution of original Malayala Settlements: Area Study)

2 Consolidated pictures of the basic settlements in a larger Area-Regional study

3Area Groupings of Various categories. The areas identified can be compared to Tinai system of early concepts Here it is conceptualized in two ways. In this analysis the hierchical status of each area is decided. They are segments of social groups. Hence new names are given to each area. Generaly they are called Complexes and groups in urban study method .In Deshacharithram and pradesha charitram it is termed as KaavuTattakams

                                                                       X

                                            Area study: Pradesha padanam

A group of Villages-2

Study of village structure in Kerala is dealt with some scholars like Eric Miller and others. The methodological study of the infra structure of a single village is given in the name Araamprom Study, along with a few case studies. Micro toponymycal approach is the basic principle of this analysis. Araamprom village study is a study based on a Revenue village. Distribution of Micro toponyms or Suffixes are analysed based on field names. In both cases we have to take up the study on area based and regional based. Pattern studies and Map studies of a Taluk is a kind of Regional study

Patterns of settlements of occupational classes, Brahmins, and a few other groups of people in the taluk-based on Toponymical maps show many interesting social formation models. Occupational classes such as kollan, veluthedan thattan etc are widely distributed and each and every village reflects their presence. Brahmins settle fertile upper tablelands close to paddy fields and close to areas of administrative nodal points.

(Maps, Reports,Papers 110,111,112,136)33

Early political divisions like Naatu of Sthaniis of smaller local ceerikkals (Administrative divisions etc) are also regions. Identification of a Region depends on the Theme to be analysed based on nature of the social factor. For analyzing Trade routes a large area is to be taken as a region. Distribution of Natu suffixes given in sample Maps (Maps,Reports,Papers No: 64, 65, 66, 71, 75, 81, 82)34 is another example of Regional study. Distribution of uuR settlements in a sample study is also given here. 46.1% of total uuR settlements are in GBI. 9.8% is in GB I.39.25% is in the GBIII. There are Five Urban complexes in the taluk they are Areas as pointed out earlier-Cluster of villages. The distribution of Complexes in the coastal Belt III is (a). 48% of the total in the GB III is in Puthiyangadi (b) 36% is in Nagaram (c) 20% is in Katalundi. Valayanaadu complex has 45% of uur in the GBII. Kutattai has 25% and Palur has 10%.

It is interesting to note that these are the areas were Natu regions of the early political rulers emerged .The four maps are also to be linked to Maps of area wise and Regional wise distribution of uur/naatu. The political interest of the area depends on production etc that are related to urbanization. Thus more urbanized areas are areas where density of uur is high. Polanatu kizhekkumpuram, Vatakkumpuram, Pozhavaay, Tamarassery, Kurubranatu, Northparappanadu etc are identified and establishes the interrelation of uur->urbanisation->naatu->political interest->economic background. UuR suffixes are thus very important signifier of earliest stable human settlements. (Phd para4.12 to 4.14.4)35 Naatu thus generally reflects urban situations

                                                                       

 

 

 

 

                                                                   XI

                                          Earliest settlements

uuR To Macro Unit Naatu

Distribution of uuR

(a) Village wise( b) Areawise (c)District wise

d) Distribution in Venad during 9th to14th C.A D. uuR/naatu Etc

(a) Village wise:

- uuR settlements and settlements of occupational classes are discussed in the above noted paragraphs .The original stable settlements are denoted by uur suffixes. Tribes and aboriginals who were settlers in and around uur areas had left their footprints in Toponyms. In many areas these early settlers are still live around these uuR settlements. The other factors like pre historic sites; shrines etc are also reflected in names it is a kind of clusters. The nature of such settlements shows local variations according to the geographical situations. These geographical situations change the productions and nature of urban situations. In villages the tribes and many occupational classes settle in areas with uuR as its Nucleus of the cluster .In these maps a black dot inside a circle in the village 99.Kuttambuur circle indicate the uuR Nucleus. In 99.Kuttambuur there are 4 uuR nuclei. Legend of the maps in general is given in map 168 Chuuluur, both in colour and black and white. All the villages in the talk were put to this rigorus and grass root level analysis It is found that the nature of uuR settlements and tribes etc show the basic pattern. But when the villages are semi urban or urban the settlements get disturbed and the cluster-uuR nucleus relation breaks. (Maps ,Reports,Papers 86to105)36

(b) Area wise:

- All these are studies based on villages with revenue boundaries given by British officials. Here another maps including two or more villages closely attached spatially are given .In maps nos 76, 76.1, 77, 77.1(PhD)37 an important distribution pattern is given. (Maps, Reports,Papers 102, 103, 104, 105,)38 In map 76, Village nos: 98, 95, 94, and 96 are in a cluster which form an area. Settlement of Kerala is dispersed type like this All the 200 villages are in this model-they are continuous. Geographical entity Map76and 77 are cluster of villages ( maps 77 villages are 81,82,71,70 and 83.)39 with boundaries marked as in the settlement records. Maps 77.1and 76.1show the cluster of villages without revenue boundaries separating them. But the boundaries around the cluster are as in the settlement records. These two Clusters are areas for studying uuR-Tribe- stable settlement situation. This is a kind of segmental study.

The villages show that the occupational classes are settled in clusters covering large areas. Almost all villages show this tendency .It goes against the observation of Eric J Miller In villages 96-Parannuur, 99-Kuttambuur, 188-Pannikkod, 98-Punnacceri, 94-Eravannuur, and in 95-Punnuur Cerupalam. These settlements of occupational classes in clusters have a nucleated form with uuR as the nucleus. These villages are on the northern part of the Taluk.81, 82,83 etc are on the southern part of the Taluk. This type of Microanalysis clearly reveals two situations.

I. In the early stages the Kerala villages were uuR nucleated and centralized. Later due to various kinds of urbanization forces such as intrusion of Great culture, markets etc the areas became dispersed type of settlements. II British Revenue Officials decided the boundaries. These boundaries divides the clusters of settlements of tribes etc This type of village boundaries divided the social system and social structure.

(c) District wise( Habitat ional Suffixes in the Calicut District)

A study of uur settlements was done covering all villages in the Calicut district. It was based on Village names. However it revealed that villages ending with uuR suffix are distributed on the riverbanks and other water sources. The research paper presented

in 1979 (A study of Uur suffixes or Habitational suffixes in Calicut District Dravidian Linguistic Conference, Calicut university, 1979) It is pointed out in the paper

“ that while the prefix is a descriptive term whose chief value is to distinguish one place from another .the ending is the Basic word. This means that the name of the place and the ending or suffix were the same in the early period. The tendency to name a place by a compound descriptive term is relatively modern. It therefore follows that at an earlier stage place name endings were simple words.uuR is one of the best example in this context. Their separate existence vanished in due course and became agglutinative root. Originally the definition of the place name was contained in that part of the place name, which later on developed in to the place name ending. Hence if we separate the place name suffixes of a particular area and study them, it will reveal the different stages of its cultural development.

Habitational suffixes can throw light on problems such as to the earliest settlements, density of population, and geographical enviornments of the place and prehistoric and archaeological importance of a place.”

Part of data analysis is given in (Maps ,Reports ,Papers121-135)40

A distribution map is also given. This paper is the pioneering work which became the BASIC model for Calicut studies, Bharathappula river valley Studies and Village history studies. It is a surprise to note here that Dr M. R.Raghavavarior in his Toponymical papers never mentioned such important papers. Dr Varior and Dr RajanGurukkal in their work KERALA HISTORY (Sukapuram, 1993) also avoided such a reference. Later, Kerala Council of Historical Research also did"nt refers such pioneering ventures in Village studies.

One of the major problem to study social history of Kerala was that the availability of source materials. Now from the above discussion it is clear that toponymycal evidences are very helpful in the analysis of social evolution. It is because of the nature and distribution of Toponyms of Kerala.The earliest centralized unit of Kerala village, its evolution and urbanization through ages etc are all can be scientifically studied if toponyms are used in a scientific basis. The analyses need Inter deciplinary /Multi deciplinary approach. This was the attempt made in the study of Legacy of Nila on the basis of participatory research/sharing of knowledge.

d) Venadu: sample survey of urban situations

 sample survey based on distribution of Stone inscriptions of Venad during the11th to 18th c A D These places and villages were noted in the inscriptions because they were some kind of nodal points. Thus they are urban centers. The distribution patterns of uuR and Naatu are analysed. (Maps ,Reports,Papers 113-120)41 On the basis of these patterns Urbanisation trends of various periods are discussed in the Book (Kerala Samskaram Akavum Puravum.2002. pp.253-308) A study of place names of Venad is to me Acknowledged here for giving necessary Toponymycal data The work is ‘Historical and Cultural Geography Of Venad (Travancore) c. AD 1124-1729 (PhD Dissertation submitted to Deccan College of Post-Graduate and Research Institute Poona P 1979 P. L. Chakkochan.)

                                                              

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                 XII

                        Area Study and Regional Study-3

                                          (Rural and Urban Segments)

(A) AREA STUDY

(aKaavutaTTakam

(b)UrbanComplexes,Groups,Isolated Units

kaavu taTTakam (Kaavu Spheres/Divine jurisdiction of kaavu)

1 Festivals and Sacred grove and market:

a) pooram, pooyam, thalappoli ,theyyaTTu,thiRayaaTTom, vela ,paTayani,etc

 These are traditional village festivals generally termed as Non- Aryan Rituals of Malayalans or people of Malayala rajyam/naatu .It is to be identified as signifiers of Little Culture.(Keralasmskaaram Akavum PuRavum ,2002 Dr NM Nampoothiri,Pub;Central co-operative Society ,University of Calicut See Contents Maps,Reports,Papers )42

Various tribes and aborigines of Malayala naatu settled in the uuR.uuR’s gradually spread all over the naatu when settled life started. Settlers were such aborigines or tribes as explained in Toponomycal map study. Families of uuR's were units of ancestral families. They assembled with their village produces or forest produces collected for exchange and marketing in such festivals. (Ex: ValliyuuRkkavu festival in Wynaad, Vettikkavala in Kollam, Aryankaavu in palakkad (Maps ,Reports,Papers)43 These festivals were Divine. Indigenous annual rituals were conducted to worship the village deities.

There were customary rights to various families of the uuR as administrative groups or headmen or uuru mooppans (Akavum puRavuam)44. Other uuR settlements around the one where festival is conducted also had some rights like this in the uuR where festival is being conducted. Such rights were based on the kinship relations of the deities based on myths of these uuR's with the deity of the uuR where festival is taking place These kinship relations are “umblical relations” (Naabhhii naala bandham.) and not the general external relationships. (Studies of PoTTuRkkaavu Aryankaavu KuutalluR-Kotikkunnu Maps ,Reports,Papers)45 This system is even now very prominent in village shrines or Kaavu.

Art forms are seen emerged out of the sacred grove system as links between these villages-i.e. uuRs.Thus there forms a Village/kaavu network Kutira vela (a kind of marching of artificial horses made of straw etc from uuR to the Sacred Grove) KaaLa veela (same as horses) are all strong links of the uuR's to a nucleus of the area, a prominent uuR (Case study of Aryan kaavu in Vaaniyamkulam vjnaniiyam ,Report to UGC EtcBy N M Nampoothiri )46 Another link is a ritual called kuruthi. Families conduct kuruti as an offering to their village deity and deities of other villages who have kin ship relation to their own village deity. It is done by the Oracle who goes to the kaavu in other uurs in the same taTTakam. Now a taTTakam is formed. Later Great culture merged these art forms of sacred Grove settlements to Temples(See list of items on Nila banks merged to Temples. (Akamvum Puravum)47.

b)Kannaki worship

:Many Female deities in the village groves are seen praised as Kannaki of Madura who is the Principal Goddess of Trade .Many Bhagavathiis are coming to the Groves in ship or kappal(a signifier of maritime trade.) These Female deities are seen worshipped by Chetties of eastern coast who are Trade Groups. Deity of maaTaayikkaavu (maaTu+vaay=Port near hillocks. Varakkal is another case.vara means hillocks) Deity praised in payyannur paaTTu, etc and deity of Pishaari kaavu (Pantalayini port/ Kollam Port) etc are these typs.Pitaari or pishaari signifies Kaali in Tirunelveli areas. There are shrines of deity piTaari widely spread over Tirunelveli /Madura areas. (PhD)48

Zamorins of Calicut worshipped the deity as “kappal Bhagavathi”. According to Dr .RaghavanPayyanaad, there is a myth related to Bhagagavathi of his own village. His family is now a part of Paappinicceeri village kaavu centre. The villagers once settled in the remote internal areas of the hills or upper table lands in kiiccheri village.The village Goddess used to come in kiiccheri in a ship .Once the water in that area receded and the ship was unable to move to the village. Thus the villagers moved to the new land formed by the withdrawal of sea.

There they established a new kaavu settlement and its taTTakam. Thus it is clear that the migration was based on some kind of economic aims... In many sacred groves of northern/Southern/and middle areas of Malayaala Naatu, Kannaki thoRRam is chanted to praise the deity. Kaavu was thus a Divine Grove linked to a market. Myths related to raavaari naayars pishaarikaavu and Lokanar kaavu (Lokanar kaavu Maps,Reports,Papers)49 are also significant. These raavaari nayars were a group of trade community migrated to pishaari kaavu area of Pantalaayini kollam port from Kurakkeeni kollam or southern kollam.

Market is based on Agricultural produces of all villages.When Great Culture transformed the Sacred Grove system to suit their needs, these types of structural factors were adopted by them and linked to a Kshetra or Temple Complex. One of the best example is relation existed between Varakkal temple and Puthiyangadi market (VarakkalGrandhavari Malabar padanangal-Saamoothirinaatu State language institute Trivandrum2007 ,Heritage of Calicut Mathrubhoomi Publications 2007)50The temple-oriented system thus adopted many factors of divine grove.(Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer Zamorins and temple arts Akavum puravum)51

c) Kannaki-Kaavu-market and Super imposition of “Goddess of trade”

Market is invariably linked to the village shrines. It is noted that there are thoRRams or divine chanting of songs (invocation of toRRam) praising Kannaki Devi in many kaavu centers. Kannaki is a female deity and her story is related to trade activities with Pandyas of Madura on the banks of Vaigai River and Cheras of Cranganuur on the river mouth of PeriyaR (western coast) .The movement of kannaki deity cult is thus a signifier of migration of a Divine Trade System from eastern parts of Tamilakam to western cost. Case studies prove that kaavu centers of northern Kerala (Payyannur paattu)51 as well as Southern Kerala show the migration of trade groups to Cranganuur Pilgrimage to Kodungallur is conducted by the lower castes of the society. Thus the network of the basic settlements is linked to KodungalluR. Kannaki is the principal deity of Cranganur shrine. The concept of kannaki thoRRam in the Aattukal Temple near Trivandrum and such situations in the Nila river valley are significant cases of trend of migration.

According to Dr Raghavan there are two types of female deities in northern Kerala .One of them is Sri KuRumbas. Another one is Kaali. Kurumbakkaavu belongs to Mukkuvas. Mukkuva families of power and status conduct festivals there. But the kaali shrines belong to a society and not to some families. The invocation of Kannaki thoRRam (paTTUalone) there is no theyyam to this deity) is seen in such Groves. CiiRmakkavu which belongs to carpenter communityand tiyyers have a Kannaki Relation according to Dr M. V. Vishnu Nampoothiri, the Folklorist. He said that the sacred shrines of kasargod. However the problem is to be analysed more scientifically and study of distribution of other deities in sacred groves in areas in all villages in Kerala is to be done. But family based and society based, Kannaki cult based and others are the two basic sets of sacred groves identified here as a preliminary basis for discussions. Kannaki cult is seen in areas from aaRRukaal in Thiruvananthapuram up to KoothupaRampu and MaTTannur in Malabar. Pilgrimage to KodungalluuR is conducted by lower groups of people up to these northern regions. In a way the thaTTakam of Kodungallur is areas between Thiruvanathapuram and Koothuparampu. The superimposition of Kannaki worship is thus a fact in northern Kerala also.

In central Kerala Kannaki relation is seen in myths, pilgrimage Etc.It widely spread in KuTTanatu, Alappzha areas. People from Ambalappuzha annually conduct pilgrimage to Kodungallur.A myth related to Kannaki linking the Deity to Purakkad (Porca port of Foreign travallers.) is quoted here.

“Once, Kodungallore Amma with the deities of Her own might, set cruising to different directions, and marked Purakkad, which was on top of its fame and prosperity at that time, as the meeting point for the journey back to Kodungallore. Due to reasons unknown, the present Deity of Murukkuveli temple could not reach Purakkad at the appointed time. Kodungalloor Amma and the other Deities left Purakkad without Murukkuveli Devi. Having felt abandoned, Murukkuveli Devi decided to reside permanently in Purakkad. The Maharajah of Chempakasseri regime at that time perceived the celestial presence of this Deity in a dream. Traditions demanded to establish the facts of the Highness's dream by conducting Devaprasnam. Devaprasnam is a fact-finding technique by applying astrological calculations, omens, generalization and combinations of events. Only learned and experienced scholars of this science are entrusted to conduct Devaprasnam. Due to exigency of the dream, the Maharajah ordered his court astrologers to conduct an immediate session of the Devaprasnam. Having the presence of the divinity established and interpreted in the session, the Maharajah of Chempakasseri Regime ordered to construct a Temple for the Deity. The Maharajah granted large tax-free estates for the smooth performance of the holy rituals and to meet the allied daily requirements of the temple”

An important aspect of Kuttanad area particularly Ambalappula, Purakkad and Trukkunnappuzha (supposed to be the Buddhist settlement Sreemuulavasam) locations is that the people annually conduct Sabarimala Pilgrimage. These situations show that there was an under current of Trade in thisRelations .The deity of Sabarimala had relations to Ampalappuzha according to certain family myths. The Arayas (Fishermen) visit the Erumeli Temple where Pettah (Market Festival) was conducted .These is to be investigated in grassrootlevel.52

Dr Raghavan agrees with the suggestion that there existed a Pre- Perumal nucleated Village settlement system in Kerala which was Sacred Grove Oriented. The migration of trade groups to Western Cost is reflected in the spread of kannaki worship .This was promoted and patronized by perumals-i.e.chera kula of Ilam ko Atikal during the Sangham period(3rdc B.C to 3rd c A. D.) The Central pivotal point was Kodungalluur.

Crangannur was one major settlement of early Cheras of karoor vanchi. Kannaki cult was brought by the Chera family.The story of kannaki was the theme of Cilappadikaaram written by Ilam ko Atikal. Even now ATikal families from the banks of Bharathappula River are the Priests of KoTungalluR Kaavu. Atikal is a title seen in the case of Chera Ilam Ko. The aTikal families conduct poojas at Koti kkunnu Kaavu where the Kannaki Cult exists on the river bank of NiLa Kotikkuunnu was a famous market known as Kulamukku.These situations indicate the importance of Kodungallur Kaavu and Migration of Trade Groups to kodungallur

The importance of Cranganuur is not related to Muziris and Maritime trade alone; but it is more significant in the Social formations of Malayaala naatu. (Poottur kaavu, kuutallur, koorranaatu, poyilam Akavum PuRavum Maps, Reports, Papers)53The earliest village deity existed in many villages were super imposed with this kannaki version.

It resulted in the urbanization of villages. Thus this evolution is to be taken as an important stage in Capitalisation Trend in Kerala in early days.

2 Divine leaderships and Political power system in Sacred Grove

a) This type of groves has divine leaderships. The divine Leader is the Oracle or Velichappaatu. He regularly visits specific locations in the villages .He conducts kuruthi in other uuR -Kaavu centres around his kaavu which are related to his kaavu in kinship terms and used to conduct kuruti. This area is a divine one sanctified by his visit. Thus it becomes the thaTTakam or jurisdiction of the kaavu. These kaavu thaTTakams were again related each other by visit of the Oracle of each kaavu. In this way an AREA of Malayalanaatu originates. Such areas when inter-related we get a REGION of Malayaali. When regions are interrelated we get MALAYALA RAJYAM.

b) uuru mooppanswere actualy the political head of the uuR and the authority in the apex of the administrative structure (Akavum puravum)54. It is also a position of Divinity. (In later period there was a saying-Raja Pratyaksha Daivatam. Life of kings was regularized in parallel to systems in the temple worship Kovil /kooyil means temple andPalace ) Most of the village Gods were indigenous deities like mother Goddess etc(PhD)55 .It is very important to note that the political system, customary rights, customs and manners, Economic system etc are all strongly linked to Divine Grove Worship. Usually these Inter- relations were not taken in to account in studies. uuR settlement is stable and centralized Human habitation. It has a political leadership and political administrative system with various hierarchies and customary rights to persons and families. All are under divine folder. The Utayavar’s of Kulasekharas (Cheras of Mahodayapuram) and Sthanis of Swaroopams (Chieftaincies of Medieval period) are to be compared to this system. The Divine grove has a divine market also. It is also adopted by Kshetras as Utsavams.( Akavum puravum etc)56 Everything is Divine and recurring annual functions.

c) Kodungallur Sacred Grove became a Power centreof politics, a port centre of maritime trade and internal trade, and a religious centre for pilgrimage of lower castes from taTTakams of Kerala as a whole. There was a well planned Capital city as the Rajadhani, a port city etc in 8th c.A D.Thus this Urbanisation might have started from very early period with the Sacred Grove as the Nodal point(Cranganur Maps,Reports,Papers)57

d) Another parallel example is of Zamorins of Calicut. Valayanattu kaavu of Zamorins of Calicut also show the importance of Sacred Grove system. Valayanattu kaavu was a Nakaram in the Port City of Calicut.as per the Zamorins Palace records.Nakaram was an administrative group of a trade centre existed during the period of Kulasekharas of Cranganur.Vaaniyamkulam (Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer)58 where the Aryankaavu exists also was a Nakaram during the same period. Ancestors of Zamorins conquered the Calicut port and occupied the Valayanattu kaavu and established a planned a port city. It is proved that there existed an irregular pattern of port at Calicut .It belonged to the Porlathiri according to tradition. Zamorins were EralanaTTu uTaiyavar during Kulasekhara period. Their ancestral village was Nediyiruppu in Kondotty a remote internal area of Malappuram District They moved to Valayanattu Kaavu area for improving maritime trade .They adopted the deity of Valayanatu kaavu as their Principal deity .During their royal visits it was customary to take a wooden door by name Palli maaRaati in front of the Royal procession .This piece of wooden door is believed to be the abode of the deity.( PaLLi is a honorific prefix to maaRaaTi. maaRaatuka in this context seems to mean make abode or hide ) It means that there was a Sacred grove as a nodal point. On the sea shore ( PhD)59.It was a port. Nediyiruppu Swaroopam conquered it and Urbanised to suit to their maritime Trade.

e) In Trikkavu on the river mouth of Ponnani, there existed the Ritualistic Headquarters of Zamorins of Calicut. He was always staying there. His procession to conduct Mamaakam was started from Trikkavu Palace .Zamorins palace Manuscripts give all these details.Kottichezunnallath to Calicut from Ponnani Head quarters are many and they are giving great importance to Trikkavu Kaavu.” Ponnani vaayke Trikkavil Koovilakathu Irunnarule” is the opening words of all Palm leaf Manuscripts of Zamorins palace.

f) MaaTaayikkaavu, Katameerikkavu, KalarivatukkalEtc are all have such dimensions.Maatayikkavu and kalarivathukkal kaavu were the Power cetre of Koolathiri in later period. It was major outlets to sea. a maaTayi was a place were Maritime trade was prominent .There exists a Mosque inscription as a signifier of the relation between Olathe nadu Chieftaincy and Muslim Traders in Maatayi Palli. Kalarivatukkal kaavu is near Valapattanam. PaTTanam means Coastal town or port .The shrine is also the paradevatha (ancestral deity Swaruupa devata) sthanam of koolathiri .In kalarivathukkal along with Swaroopa devatha other Six upadevatha teyyams are also participat.These are Grama devatha’s according to Dr Vishnu Nampoothiri. Apart from this their existed KuTumba devata too.Gramas and Families were visited by Swaroopa devatha.This system of visit of swaruupa devatha must be an adaptation of a pre-existed Oracle visit which structured a kaavu taTTakam. In the temples it was transformed to PaRaYeTuppu, Visit to gramachatwaraas an important locations in the village on PaLLiveTTa day of the utsava it is adopted and established by PuTayuur bhaasha, Tantra samuchaya etc (13th and 15th c A D) .Zamorins of Calicut Trans formed the system of village visit of devine power to collect money through a Divine Drama performance Krishnanaattom.

g) Distribution in Venad.P. L. Chakkochan in his PhD Thesis has done a detailed discussion to support the settlement pattern uuR given above. Settlement of specialised occupational groups, tribes ,aborigines, distribution of kaLam paTTinam etc are all analysed in the work ( pages 208,213,214,220, 221,223,229,243,244 Un pub.) In the analysis of settlements he also suggests uuR as the earliest habitational Signifier. In the analysis of kaavu and settlements of lower classes like aborigines etc also some of his observations are reasonable .His observations are on settlements of Venad where uuR and kaavu links were not studied.

In Venaad there are enormous muTippuraas instead of kaavu. According to historian Sri Sivasankaran Nair there were no icon worship in these mutippuraas. But the deity in a muTippura is considered to be a female deity. Saarkara temple in Chirayin kiil is an important Kali worshippig temple and Probably it might have some relation to the ancestral rulers of Venaatu. It is a seen that many Sacred groves including Sarkara belonged to the Pillamar and other Sthanis of Venad. In Attingal there exists a Mother Goddess Family temple for the Venad rulers. It is said that this deity was the Kuladevatha of Kolathu natu Ruling family and when the kolathu family came to Attingal as dattu to venad family, they brought with them their kuladevatha also. However ,the goddess of Attingal or Vaahiniitatanivasini is highly praised by Swathi thirunal ,The great composer in his compositions “ Navarathri Krithikal”.It is to be noted that Maharaja Swathi Thirunal praises Saraswathi in six compositions and Durga in three compositions of Navaratri kritikal. So he worships two Deities.Probably he worships the ancestoral deities of Venaad and kolathunad. The uuraalas of sacred groves are always communities other than Brahmins and other Communities.These aspects are to be more investigated. (Akavum puravum)60

3 Koottayma (in which an Umblical relationship exists) and kulam

a) In Malayala Rajya Charitram, the micro segment is generally known as desam. But there is no geographical area with boundaries is fixed for a desam in early days (Maps,Reports,Papers)61. As noted above we have to take into consideration the kulam or family system as a micro unit. Such units were settled in the uuR-Kaavu geographical segment. It is usually neglected in studies. The story of PaRaki peRRa pantirukulam reveals this social dimension very prominently. The members assembled in the ancestral house every year to conduct ancestral rituals. This is a Kulam.This system existed in the tribes of Tamizhakam and it is analysed in grass root level by this author.(Akavum puravum)62 Chera’s ,Pandya’s and Chola’s had such system of kulams.Cheera kulam was a tribal Family and the rulers titled Cheras belonged to it. The Kulasekharas of Cranganuur were also belonged to Chera kulam. Thus a system of family koottaayma existed even during the period of Sangham literature.

Ancestral family system is seen in political ruling families like perumpatappu, Venaad etc.They believe that they are descendants of cheera kulam. AaTTU system in families in the region VaniyamkuLam (Ottappalm) is one of the best examples of the family tradition of kulam. Even though the Malayali family is in the Contemporary period seems to be isolated units. They have an inherent centrifugal force through the linkages to withstand against centripetal forces. The families are now single units or Anu kutumbam. But they are linked to ancestral family by ancestral rituals etc.Thus they are not isolated units also. Such relations are incorporated in Divine Grove system also. So the Malayala manas (mind) is also a unique one( Uty of Clt )63 uuR thus gets urbanized through divinity of Grove. Political factors (Power), Economical factors (Wealth) and customs and manners (aachaaras-Religion) were all linked to divinity.

4 uuR, rural urbanization, Capitalisation

a) The basic urbanization process in Malayala rajyam has its origin in uuR - kaavu - divinity base. This is an all-pervading phenomenon. This situation clearly points out that how “Capitalisation “of Economy came in to force. Sacred grove was a funnel to suck wealth for some groups who are the earliest settler’s .Their leader ships gradually became wealthy suitably manipulating power and religious observances. Such patterns of cultural factors have their impacts on the Micro factor“Family”or “KuTumbam” also. Family based capitalization also was widely spreading. It is usually explained that in Kerala Capitalization was completely a trend brought by Brahmin migration.The trend was there in kaavu System and all the forces of Capitalization was acting and re- acting in the settlements of Sacred Grove system. It was much increased with the migration of people of Great culture.

b) By introducing Tantra sastra system in the kaavu-uuR central point of the settlement absorbing many factors of the village, the village gradually absorbed many factors of the Great culture also. This created a trend of Co existence along with urbanization The temple system was established in Malayala naTu considering the habitat and environmental conditions and basic cultural life of Kerala people. It starts with the description of Bhoopareekshha.The earth for building a temple is selected based on the qualities and fertility of the earth in Kerala situation. The items of offerings, PanchaPrakara system of the temple Utsava system etc are all friendly to the Kerala situations. Kerala Tantra system is a Samuchayam of many basic Tantric systems. It thus became a unique way of tantra, a Kerala system. Thus in the discussion of Cultural evolution of Malayala Rajyam we have to place the earliest phase of Process of accumulation of wealth in the Family units of uuR settlements.

c) The nucleated and centralised villages were uuR’s. All transactions and exchanges were in the uuR-kaavu Divine Jurisdiction (taTTakam).It was thus a Divine Market. The accumulation of wealth was a major trend in the nuclear village uuR through divine market. Political and administrative hierarchies were also the product of this uuR-kaavu system. Customs and manners received divinity and all pervading code of conduct and status in this axis. This is the first phase of evolution of cultural and social formation in malayala rajyam.

d) Enormous number of kaavu taTTakams was there in each Taluk. (Phd, Akavum puravum Maamaanka Rekhakal :Dr N.M Nampoothiri Vallathol Vidyapeedom Sukapuram 2006 ,Maps,Reports,Papers mamankataTTakam etc)64 There are Sacred Groves to many families of little culture as their private wealth .Later a large number of families belonged to the great culture also became the owners of these kaavu system Its mega form is visible in later period as Maamaankam. All kaavu Tattakams were linked to Tirunavaya mamankam. A large number of families were part of such festivals. Such families were getting money and titles with power from the ruling Swaroopam, the Political Head.It is a Hereditary right too. It is described in the Zamorins Records in detail Sacred Grove was a funnel of sucking wealth and a catalyst of Capitalization.So they brought many code of conduct related to the activities of Kaavu system/temple system. Certain group of people was even prohibited from the premises of the divine grove/temple.

e) Such prohibitions were the root causes of Guruvayoor Satyagraham ( Saamuuthiri Charitrathile kaanaappurangal,1987)65 an incident of the 20th c AD. There were more than sixty wealthy feudal families who objected to give entry to people of little culture families to their private temples. These temples were once shrines and they were transformed to temples by the followers of great culture.Guruvaayuur temple was a sacred Grove called kuruvayuuR in early days. By 1538 A D it is mentioned as KuruvayuuR vattom. It was then under the control of the Zamorins of Calicut and the present temple was established. It became famous due to the presence of a Great political leadership, the poem written by Melputtur, and the Important Tantra Text written by Chennas. Even now it is customary that after visiting The Temple one must visit the kurumpakkaavu location and give offerings.Then he has to visit ciriccikkaavu and mammiyuur temple. The thantri of Guruvayuur has control over the kurumpakkavu location. Now it is very clear that the discussions of Cultural Evolution of malayalanaatu are to be beginning with the earliest form of village system. As far as Malayalanaatu is concerned, this researcher feels that starting point is the Divine grove-uuR unit.

(5) Transformation of Centralised villages to dispersed type of villages

a) Centralized villages and distribution of the uuR etc are discussed under Micro toponomy (Village wise and Area wise Maps ,Reports Papers 113-120, 76.76.1, 77, 77.1, 102-105)66 There, it is seen that a large area is lying in between the uuR settlements without marking any settlements. These spaces are inhabited by people of all groups in later times. Area wise settlements of Occupational classes, mangalams of Brahmins, etc are seen in such spaces. The number of divine groves as per toponymycal data is very large in villages. Kshetra complexes are also larger .The distribution of them in a Taluk is analysed in the study based on Toponomy (PhD)67 The limitations of studies based on other source materials is very clear. There are many studies seen related to Sacred Groves .All of them are general reports. They never touches the basic issues of Socio-Economic, Socio- cultural or Evolution of “Kerala culture” etc.

b)Settlements of various groups of people is significant. The proliferation of nucleated villages with uuR as the nucleus is discussed below in relation to some basic aspects of Sacred Groves in North Malabar. The ideas pointed out by Dr Raghavan Payyanaad are also discussed here. The distribution occurred on various grounds. Some of them are:

1. Occupationalclasses like kollan taTTaan aassaari taccan, vaaniyaas, kalari lokar etc

2. Temples and temple servants.

3 Priests and other Brahmin groups

4. New settlements of agricultural labourers,

5 Markets and traders like chetty’s, tarakan’s

6 jains, Buddhists

7. Muslims, Christian’s etc.

c)Proliferation of kaavu settlements According to Dr Raghavan, Sacred grove villages were primarily caste based settlements.Dr Vishnu Nampoothiri pointed out that the KuTumba Devathas are also many. Each of the settlement was geographical units according to Dr Raghavan. Thus settlers were interested in establishing new village with a new sacred grove as nodal point. This basic proliferation is thus of Tribes and aborigines. They made the split up in villages to suit their need of economic gain. This trend in the early phase of proliferation of settlement is of great importance and not yet addressed by any researcher except Dr. Raghavan.

d)Space utilization is thus for highly diversified activities. This situation is the major force, which brought a Decentralised or Dispersed Villages in malayalanaatu (PhD)68 .As pointed out earlier the nucleated village unit, the uuR-kaavu segment still exists. It is proved by various toponymycal studies (Maps Reports Papers PhD)69 .This can be termed as Unity among Diversity. The demography of malayalanaatu is thus peculiar. Every one is living in separate fields. But every one is a neighbour-irrespective of the diversified identity. It is because of this settlement pattern there never arise any feuds or rebellions in villages. In families also, each one has his identity. At the same time he, as a member of the family has participatory identity. PaRakiperra panthirukulam explains this concept. Each one has great individuality belief .At times it is controlled by his collective consciousness. The consciousness of a collective individuality (Kuuttaayma Bodham) is inherited mostly from the kuuttayma basis of malayali village life.

6 Basic village frames i)Little culture ii) Great culture

a) Social structure in sacred groves was a KooTTayma with the basis of politics, wealth, religious customs and manners. This pattern was widely spread over Kerala/malayala rajyam. Each and every kaavu was linked together ritualistically or relations based on kinship. These relations are discussed in details in the Tattaka Studies( Aryankaavu,Pottuur kaavu,Kotikkunnu etc Maps, Reports,Papers )70 Villages are thus linked to an area.In the analysis of Kshetra System also such kooTTaayma is seen.Many kaavus are linked to temples in many ways. (Akavum Puravumm Vaaniyamkulam ,Kotikkunnu Maps,Reports,Papers)71 All these points out a Situation that the basic Village koottayma can be identified in the Kaavu Koottaayma (Collectivity of Sacred grove settlements)

b) Thus the Collectivity system existed in the Pre- agrarian System of worship as Nucleated Villages gradually transformed to a taTTakam or a collective Village Koottaayma.This is the Area explained in this context.

c) Family koottayma is also there. It is the micro unit .There exist a KuTumba devatha (Family Deity.)(Eg: Panthirukulam myth and kaavu system of Vaniyamkulam area)

d) A kind of koottaayma system as gotras, pravaras etc are there in Brahmin original settlement of Kerala.It is discussed at length in my book (Akavumm PuravumContents Maps,Reports,Papers)72

e) Collectivity thinking is basically an inherent quality based on the worship of mother Goddess or any deity worshipped in the settlement- uuR. Thus there comes the presence of a Grama devatha. When uuR nucleated villages come under another collective system of settled life as taTTakam all the nucleated villages are linked to one of the important sacred groves and it becomes the Central-Nodal Point of activity.Now there emerges the power structure as the authority and the Nodal Grove becomes the Swaroopa Devatha. The basic forces are Wealth, Religious customs and manners, and Power. They act as Centripetal or Centrifugal forces in the System.As noted earlier the sacred groves linked together were spread far and wide in Malayala Raja.

These taTTakams or sacred areas were super imposed by Great culture incorporating their collective System. Thus “Sacred grove system “of Little Culture is merged to “Kshetra system” of Great culture. This process is the basic force which transformed Malayala Rajyam in to Kerala or Bhargava/Parasurama kshetram.This situations are Rural Urbanization signifiers.

7KeralaVillages: Surface surveys : Folklore and Toponymy

a) The Pattern of evolution of village discussed above must have been uniformly spread over in the geographical area of present Kerala. Studies related to Village Gods of south India was done by scholars .It is seen that Kerala was not at all under their survey and study. The religious Life of India-Village Gods of south India-By Henry Whitehead, Bishop of Madras prepared an exhaustive survey in south India. He Says “The materials for this account of the village gods of South India has been gathered almost entirely from my own observation and inquiry---each village seems to have been under the protection of some one spirit, who was its Guardian deity. Probably these village deities came into being at the period when the people began to settle down in agricultural communities. ----In India the population seems to have been split up in to small agricultural and pastoral communities.” However the investigation report of 19th century is completely Re-enforcing the Aryan migration theory and suppression of Dravidians by Aryans. But it is not discussing the problem in micro level. “In South Indian villages, villagers worship’ human beings returned to earth’ (Spirits-Ancestors).But they worship Uuramma or the village mother.”(An essay on the origin of the south Indian Temple By N Venkataramanayya Madras 1930).Such observations are to be made basic sources for Studies of Village Culture in Kerala. Now Toponyms are the only major signifiers of various cultural factors of Kerala village’s .These signifiers will give new interpretations to the Folk lore findings.

b) Surface surveys of Sacred Groves of Malabar reveal some very important cultural situations of Malayalanaatu. I have not seen any in-depth Socio -Cultural/Economic studies of Kaavu system in Kerala. I was not able to survey and study the area. In the case of North Malabar area (Kasarkod and Canner districts: north of Badagara) Theyyam is the prevalent Ritulistic representation of the God or Goddess or Ancestral spirit, linked to a Kaavu. In the Kaavu, theyyam kettal is an annual ritualistic Dance performance festival. On southern part of Malabar in Kadattanaadu and south of it, tirRa and poothan etc is prevalent.In the Ottappaalam areas we see the aaTTu, an ancestral ritual in many families of lower castes. TiRa, pooothan, and such local variations are to be studied in grass root level.

c) Dr Raghavan Payyanatu the famous Folklorist of University of Calicut comments that the sacred village with a Village deity as the pivotal point and a settlement of aborigines, tribes etc close to it and signifier of a stable settlement uuR as the nodal point of an agrarian status explained with the evidences of Toponomy seems to be the earliest form of a Kerala village. According to him the Sacred Groves of North Malabar have some peculiarities.

1. Caste based Stable settlements.

2 They have some geographical basis

3 .The Lower castes have their own caste based KooTTaayma or Collectivity System. 4 Families are linked under Tara/kazhakam Etc

He said that the nucleated village pattern brought out through my Toponymical investigations seem to be an acceptable basic village pattern of Kerala. According to him there are no micro studies of this level exposing the earliest form of Kerala village.

In Malabar area sacred groves are caste based. Sacred Groves of “mucciloTT” is a group of kaavu .Its ownership goes to Vaaniyaas or Oil producers and marketteers. MaaTaayikkaavu belongs to iilavas and they have kazhakams etc (Akavum puravum)73 These Groves belongs to Non aryan group of people like aborigines lower castes occupational classes like vaanian, tattan,caaliyar iiluvaas etc.

He pointed out that this nucleated village unit is to be taken as a Geographical unit. Each caste had its own settlement. But all are Kaali settlements .This observation is supported by his evaluation of sacred groves in North Malabar. The proliferation of Sacred Groves explained by him is also of great value in the discussion of the causes of transformation of nucleated village to de-centralized pattern of villages in Kerala.

It is seen that the geographical divisions play an important part in the teyyam Rituals in theGroves.Divisions like tekkar, vaTakkar etc are such caste based and geographical based units. Sacred rituals are conducted under the Saakteya system and priests are in most cases Pitaris/pisharis.They perform poojas in the system of Kaula tanthra.Toddy in the name of ‘Kalasa’ is brought from various areas. According to Dr Raghavan, any deity will be converted to a teyyam in these kaavu systems. There is a koottayma of theyyam in all kaavu sytem.

The koottaayma explains the undercurrent social situations.Kalarivatukkal Kaaliyattom is a model of Teyyam kooTTaayma.The teyyam festival of North Malabar ends with the Kalarivatukkal Theyyam Ritual. In Southern part of Malabar the TiRa festivals end with KaTameri Kaavu festival. So it is clear that the units of Sacred Groves have a central point .One is KaTameeri and the other is Kalari vaathukkal Both are Swaroopa Devathas. Thus every thing is linked together as a net work to the Major Sacred Grove .It covers a large area. It is evident that new settlements will be formed in the spaces left unoccupied. It is to be assumed that there were such grassroot level systems in Kerala as a whole.

An example of proliferation of sacred grove based settlements is pointed out by Dr Raghavan Payyanaat. His ancestors were settled in a very remote rural area near kiicheery in Canannur district a hilly track. The settlement was associated with a kaavu.It had large area as Divine Jurisdiction .Once the settlement split up into two and 7 families in the area near Pappinicceeri established their own kaavu at Paappinicheeri .The new Sacred grove was named as PUTHIYA KAAVU. It is interesting to note that this settlement was inside the divine jurisdiction of Kiicheery kaavu settlement. They established their own “Divine Jurisdiction”. According to Dr Raghavan various sociopolitical and socio economic factors were the forces behind it. The new area was thus gradually urbanized with agriculture, trade and exchange and kaavu festivals. Thus splitting up of a kaavu taTTakam and filling the geographical space is a prominent way of urbanization in Malayaala Raajyam .This lead to spread the owners of little culture spatially in Malayaalanaatu. Exchange of produces in cash or in-kind existed in sacred grove system also. It was a part of festivals. According to Dr Raghavan the Village Banking system known as kuRi (kuRikkallyanam) has its origin in the kaavu taTTaka system

8) Proliferation of temples was a parallel spreading. Upagramaas and mangalams were spreading allover Kerala during the Kulasekhara period. (Akavum Puravum, Malayalante Valiyatayaalangal,DC Books Kottayam 2007.)74 Parallels are seen in Brahmin original Grama settlements also. Mangalams were isolated family settlements of Kerala.(PhD)75 As pointed out earlier Malayaala Brahmins have their own Gotra systems Original settlements are not a crowded system around a Grama Kshetram. A few families Stay around the grama kshetram. Other families stay in the near villages. They are linked to the Grama kshetra ritualistically .Vaaram is one of such rituals.Sukapuram and panniyuur surface investigations proved this nature .It is well known that Malayalam Brahmins have an identity compared to other Brahmins of the main land. They actually adopted profitable factors and systems of the people of little culture and suitably incorporated it to the temple system; it is why the Kerala temple system is an entirely different system compared to temples of the other parts of the main land. The rituals of the temples, Utsavams, Tantra systems etc are different in Malayalanatu. During the time of Swaroopams, they promoted the proliferation of temples.We have to evaluate the Thantrasamuchayam of Chennas of 15th c A D in this background.

i Proliferation of Brahmin settlements was based on temples, with the support of Ruling authorities. New gramas and upagramas were established in this way.

ii Proliferation of lower Caste settlements also took place based on Kaavu.This means two net work systems of settlements were there in early days.Sacred Grove based system and Gramakshetra based system.The absorption of net work system in to the temple system was the major process happened in the malayaala society. It is none other than a merging.It is not Aryanisation nor Dravidianisation.

In Kerala, presently village system is dispersed. But it had its origin in nucleated system of villages as kaavu-uuR -Owners of Little Culture AXIS. This pattern was adopted by Brahmin settlers. Families of kavuu -uuR settlements and Brahmins spread to all parts of the land. Hence most of the unused land around the nucleated villages got settled by people due to the need of urban situations brought out by Religion, Agriculture, Market, and Power politics

9) Unscientific Studies: Pre Conceived ideas in Social Evolution:

As pointed out earlier tiRa or teyyam were not put to grass root level survey and analysis. According to some scholars “Teyyam is pattern of heroe worship in Koolathu naad.teyyam is a corruption of Deivam.tiRa is the same type of worship .tiRa is performed on masonary stage.The persons who perform the dance is known as koolam”I t is the type of analysis (The cult of teyyam and heroe worship in Kerala-Dr K.K.N.Kurup.Centre for folk lore studies University of Calicut, 2000.Teyyam-Kerala Sangeetha Naataka academy Trichur 1987)

A discussion is reproduced here to see the limitation of the analysis of the Sacred Grove performing art and its Social significance.But it is clear that the Ritual is completely related to Bhadrakaali.It is the mother Goddess .In the discussion there are many hidden historical and social factors to be discussed. At least, it is clear that the performance of theyyam was done by lower groups of people like vannaan, maavilaan etc. The Difference between the sacred grove and temple is also to be noted. The title says” The Dravidian Resistance-The great Indian Mutiny” The inter pretation is exaggeration and Scientific in the context of theyyam ad thiRa. Yet another remark “Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples” These type of observations will damage further enquiries and researchers will not take up micro enquiries .Sacred Grove system is to be studied without any Prejudice. Aryan-Dravidian issue is not the major content to be enquired. Any body can make such comments based on some factors or signifiers. This is the model of the level of our enquiries and analysis. The following conclusion is another example.

“Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples”

The full text of the discussion is reproduced here .

Text I

Theyyam, otherwise known as Kaliyattom, is an ancient socio religious ceremony performed in Kerala since very remote times. As the word Kaliyattom denotes, this is a sacred dance performance for Kali. Kaliyattom is sometimes called Theyyattom because every thera or village was duly bound to perform it. These names show that Kaliyattoms were special festivals of religious and social importance.Sri. Rajan Panicker began to perform Theyyam from the age of 12 and he is son of Sri. Kannan Panicker who was honored by Kerala Folklore Academy in 1999. Rajan Panicker talks about Theyyam and its socio-religious backgroundsThe name Theyyam originates from the word Theivam, which means God.Q) Let’s start talking about the origin of Theyyam.A) In the early days our forefathers used to worship snakes, trees etc. Theyyam comes apart from that. There are different types of Theyyam peformed by different castes - Vannaan, Malayan, Velan, Anjoottaan, Koppaalan etc. Some of these Theyyams originated from the late forefathers or from the myth of someone who sacrificed his life to prove his innocence in the society. Each Theyyam has a background story. Let us take Vishnumoorthy Theyyam for example. This Theyyam was shown to one of our forefathers, who were called Paalayi Parappan, in his dream. The prayers and mantras to recite while performing this Theyyam was written in the sand by the time he woke up in the morning. In the modern days we have added more colors to the whole thing.Q) Is there any myth behind Theyyam?A) Yes, there is. Every Theyyam has a myth. I will talk about one. Let’s take Pottan Theyyam for example. The myth is that Lord Shiva came as a Pulayan (Pottan Theyyam) to test Sankaraachaarya (Pulayan is a low caste) and asked questions like, “What is the difference between you and me? Isn’t it the same blood running through our body? Then why should we differentiate ourselves?” etc. Every Theyyam has such a myth in the background and it is strongly connected to the modern society.Q) How old is this ritual?A) I cannot say about an accurate timeframe on this. In the early days when there was dynasty ruling, they needed Theyyam to be performed in their celebrations and made the low caste to do it. Then there were many additions to it and it transformed to this level.Q) Where do you perform Theyyam?A) Its performed in Palliyara, Kaavu, Sthaanam etc.

Q) What is the difference between this Palliyara and a normal temple with idols?

A) Temples have idol worship, poojas etc, but Palliayara has only Theyyams which is performed once in every year or so.This is what makes the Kaavu and Palliyara of low-caste different from the temples of high-castes. These Kaavus don’t have everyday Poojas or rituals. There is no idol to worship, but just a lamp lit that depicts the eternal light of God. Their Gods come in the form of Theyyam in every year or so to see and talk to the devotees. Remember, such a beautiful concept of God existed here ages ago.

Also remember that the low-caste took the form of God through Theyyam at a time when they were not allowed to enter the temples. Think about a situation when even the high-caste people (some sub-castes of Nair, a high-caste) praying to the God that comes in the form of Theyyam, performed by a low-caste and read this along with the then social situation of Kerala divided on the caste basis. Then only we can understand the social importance of Theyyam. Eventhough this is the case, Theyyam could not escape the caste-system totally. In the time of blessings (which is the final part of Theyyam performance) Theyyam first calls the family name of high-caste people present at the ceremony and would give them special blessings. Seeing this would make us feel that Theyyam is representing the God who is helpless with the caste system.

Rajan panicker says :Although we have the myths against caste system in Theyyam, it is not possible to make it practical while performing Theyyam. We can give an insight to the community through Theyyam, but the caste-system is very strict here. There is no compromise in it.

TEXT II

( i)

“The concept of sacred groves in India has its roots in antiquity. Ramakrishnan traces its

antiquity to the pre-Vedic period. He argues that, “Vedic people assimilated new environmental

values and the concept of ‘sacred groves’ from the value system of the original inhabitants

of the Indian subcontinent” and that it became a widespread practice. In the post-Vedic

period, in addition to considering a landscape as such valuable and sacred, individual species

and micro units also began to be treated as sacred.

The idea of sacred groves

Sacred lands are found everywhere around the world. In all parts of Africa, various tribes

consider different types of groves as sacred. In West Asia, Babylonians and Assyrians had

planted sacred groves. Palm forest with altar has been reported from Arabia. Sacred Oak

grove was present in Asia Minor. Sacred mountains and lakes are present in Madagascar.

Many Siberian people honoured sacred groves. Village groves are present in Korea. In Japan,

Shinto shrines, as a rule, are surrounded by trees. Buddhist temples in Japan and China have

tree-gardens. Traditional Chinese honour sacred mountains with trees. Buddhist monasteries

and temples of Thailand have sacred groves. Indonesia has monkey-forests. Sacred groves

were also present in Greece, Italy, France, Scandinavia, Sweden, Finland, British Islands,

Arctic Russia, New Zealand, and Polynesia. Sacred groves are present in Nepal and Sri

Lanka. In America, both pre-Columbian people and the settlers maintained sacred groves. In

San Francisco AIDS National Memorial Grove (1996) was started in memory of those who

died by AIDS and of other AIDS patients.

In India sacred groves are found in a wide range of ecological situations from estuaries to

mountain localities. Gadgil and Vartak (1976) record that the important regions with sacred

groves in India are the North Eastern Himalayas (Khasi-Garo hills), Western Ghats, Aravalli

10

Hills of Rajasthan and Sarguja, Chandes and Bastar area in Central India. But this does n

A total of 110 local bodies are included in the study area. Kannur district has 81 Grama

Panchayats and 6 Municipal towns. The selected area in Kasargod district is its southern

part and comprises 22 grama panchayats and one Municipal town.

The sacred groves of the study locality

The sacred groves are of three types: Daivakkavu, where a male God is worshipped,

Bhagavathikkavu, where a female God is worshipped, and Nagam or Sarpakkavu, where

snakes are worshipped. Nagam or snake groves are numerous. Many of them are of small

size. Yet large snake groves like Edayilekkadu exist in this region.

Sacred groves are present throughout Kerala. In Kannur and Kasargod districts their distribution

extends from West Coast to the foothills of Western Ghats. They exist as holy places for

worshiping Gods, Goddesses, and Serpents. Many of them have small shrines attached to

them. Thick climax vegetation persists in many sacred groves, whereas in some others it is

degraded; in still others, the entire vegetation has been cleared leaving only the shrine. Complex

rituals are performed in almost all of these groves which include periodical performance of

Theyyam, a practice of worshiping Gods and Goddesses in north Malabar. Each shrine,

which stands in the name of a Theyyam, was associated with a sacred grove or situated

within a sacred grove. But in many at present the vegetation has been destroyed and only the

shrine exists. Another remarkable feature is the large size of the sacred groves in this area,

when compared with those of south Kerala.

In Kasargod and northern part of Kannur district Kavu means sacred forest. The word

Nagam is generally used here to denote a serpent grove. Shrines are present in association

with many sacred groves of Gods and Goddesses. But some of them have only a small holy

place in the form of a stone, idol, platform or a single tree for worship. In serpent groves

usually there is no shrine inside or outside. Some idols or stones represent the place of

serpent god. The term Mundya is also used for sacred forest of God worship. At present in

many cases Kavus or Mundyas have turned to be simp

Our survey revealed the abundance of sacred groves in this area compared to places further

south and further north. Five hundred and seventy-eight groves were located in the study

area. They included the Kunnathurpadi, a holy land in the foot hills of the Western Ghats.

The total area of the 578 sacred groves was 3.3710 sq. km, excluding sacred places with

single trees, which were 50 in number. The number of groves having size of 5 cents and

more was 481.

17

The number of groves in local bodies varied from none to 53. The maximum of 53 sacred

groves were located in Kodom-Belur panchayats. Certain local bodies, especially the

municipalities, had no sacred groves of any significant size. Payyannur Municipal area was

an exception, where 36 sacred groves were located. This was due to the presence of sacred

groves in the suburban villages like Korom and Vellur of that Municipality. Larger sized

sacred groves were seen mostly in interior villages. The largest one was Kottiyur sacred

forest having an extent of 36.423 ha. The other conspicuous groves were Theyyotkavu

(24.282 ha, Kankol-Alapadamba Panchayat), Thavidisserikavu (12.141 ha, Peringome

Panchayat), Kammadathkavu (24.282 ha, West Eleri Panchayat) and Kunnathoorpadi

(21.0444 ha, Payyavoor Panchayat). Among these, best maintained groves were Theyyotkavu

and Thavidisserikavu.

Four hundred and three sacred groves have evergreen vegetation and 96 are semi-evergreen.

There are only 28 kavus with deciduous type of vegetation of which four groves have scrub

vegetation. Our survey reveals that Thazhekkavu in Mattool Panchayat is the only sacred

grove with mangrove vegetation; 50 others are with one or two trees. The wet tropical

climate of the locality supports growth of evergreen species, resulting in the majority of the

groves having evergreen vegetation. Single trees worshipped are all of the evergreen type.

Groves in drier areas exhibit semi-evergreen nature. Upper portion of Aravanchalkavu is

semi-evergreen. Natural deciduous vegetation is rare in the Western slopes. So, deciduous

groves are comparatively fewer. Evergreen trees generally have less timber value. However,

owing to increased demand for wood, huge trees like mango trees are felled from some

groves. Demand from plywood industries has added a new threat for the generally noncommercial

trees. Kavu’s with deciduous trees of higher timber value thus face the threat of

felling.

Distribution, density, and size

The first documented study of sacred groves in North Kerala (Unnikrishnan, 1990) recorded

62 sacred groves in Kasargod and 57 in Kannur district. That study included only groves of

significant extent. According to Ramachandran and Mohanan (1991), there were only 15

kavus in Kasargod and 19 in Kannur. They were supposed to have listed all sacred groves

with an extent of more than five cents. In their report, Alappuzha district with 65 groves

stood first and Thiruvananthapuram with 31 occupied the second place. But our survey

reveals a total of 226 sacred groves in the southern part of Kasargod district falling under the

study area and 352 all over Kannur. Of the 578 sacred groves in our study area, 483 are

having an extent of more than 5 cents. In the light of these findings, in density of kavus, the

surveyed part of Kasargod district ranks first.

Unnikrishnan (1990) recorded Theyyottukavu (24.282 hectares) of Kankol-Alappadamba

panchayats as the largest grove in his study area. Largest kavu according to Mohanan and

Ramachandran was Iringolkavu in Ernakulam district (20.234 hectares). The earlier surveys

have missed Kammadath, Thavidissery, and Kottiyurkavu. Kammadath and Theyyottu kavus

are larger than Iringolkavu. Next large ones according to Mohanan and Ramachandran were

in Kannur and Kasargod districts and only 12 sacred groves exceeded one hectare in extent

in this region. According to our study, however, 29 sacred groves in Kasargod and 32 sacred

groves in Kannur district exceed one hectare in extent.

18

The Kottiyoor forest is having sacred status even though it cannot claim the tradition of

other kavus. Thus it becomes the largest sacred-forest (37.2324 hectares) in the study area

and also in the entire Kerala State. In Alappuzha only four sacred groves exceed one hectare

and the largest one is Vallikkavu of 3.444 hectares. The kavus in the present study area are

more in abundance and larger when compared to those of the southern districts.”

(ii)

“HISTORY The existence of sacred groves in India most likely dates back to an ancient pre-agrarian hunter-gathering era, and their presence has been documented since the early 1800s. Believing trees to be the abode of gods and ancestral spirits, many communities set aside sanctified areas of forest and established rules and customs to ensure their protection. These rules varied from grove to grove but often prohibited the felling of trees, the collection of any material from the forest floor, and the killing of animals. Presiding deities administered punishment, often death, to individuals who violated the rules, and sometimes to the entire community in the form of disease or crop failure. As a result of these protective restrictions, preserved over countless years, sacred groves are now important reservoirs of biodiversity. Sacred groves are often the last refuge for endemic and endangered plant and animal species. They are storehouses of medicinal plants valuable to village communities as well as modern pharmacopoeia, and they contain wild relatives of crop species that can help to improve cultivated varieties. Sacred groves also provide for the water needs of nearby communities. Many sacred groves contain water resources such as ponds and streams, and the vegetative mass that covers the floor of a grove can absorb water during rainy seasons and release it during times of drought. Trees also improve soil stability, prevent topsoil erosion and provide irrigation for agriculture in drier climates. There has been no comprehensive survey of sacred groves in India, so their exact number and area are unknown. At least 13,720 sacred groves have been reported in various regions of the country, but experts estimate that the actual number is likely 100,000 to 150,000.”(www.sacredland.org <http://www.sacredland.org/> Sacred land Film Project)

. According to some surveys there are 13720 Groves in India. Some other surveys say that there are more than 20000 groves in India. Some of the surveyors say that there are 5000 groves in Himachal Pradesh.Many surveyors say that there are Christian, Muslim, Jaina, Buddha, groves in many states India.

. In one related to Kerala, the investigator has only surveyed the area of study on the basis of records. But the survey based on records of general revenue papers will never bring out the situation properly. The age-old Groves, Sanctified fields are all highly distributed in a revenue village. The survey says that there are only 578 groves in the two districts namely Kasargod and Canannuur. These groves are distributed in the area of 110 Panchayaths and 6 Municipal areas. There are 481 groves having an area of more than 5 cents.

According to a local survey the Trittaala/Chalisseeri Panchayaths (Pantirukulam taTTakam Palakkad district) there are 970 sacred groves. Survey of another researcher points out that there are 2000 groves in Kerala However no authentic analysis or survey accounts are available

There are many studies on “Sacred groves. They generally deal almost all dimensions of these ‘cultural treasures’ and their antiquity. In some discussions it is seen that these groves are placed like this: “most likely to an ancient pre -agrarian hunter gathering era” (Cultural and ecological Dimensions of Sacred groves in India) Agricultural political, economical, and ritualistic importances are pointed out in the descriptions. But the question of evolutionary aspects of human habitation in kerala is untouched. The settlement patterns of Kerala are of a different character and it was able to put forward a theoretical frame work to Evolution of human habitation in Kerala.

. This author, for formulating the theory, the area selected is a taluk in Kerala (Calicut) and 200 villages were put to rigorous Toponomical study. Identification is based on Toponomy and other branches of Onomastics.Then the various aspects are analysed in interdisciplinary method.

In the Toponymical Analysis there are 721 groves distributed in 200 villages. It means that more than four Local deity micro nodal points of worship remains in each Revenue village. Such locations may be an on mastic signifier of Settlements or habitation. At present there may exist only this signifier alone. There may not be any ‘Active’Centres.It is clear from the maps given (FN 33, 34, 36,37and 38) the distribution pattern of such centres is almost in the average rate of 3 to 6. Out of them 51.73%(373) are in complexes and 48.24%(341) is in Groups) It means that Sacred Groves or sacred places of Non -Aryan deities are slightly higher in urban areas .It may be due to the urbanization situations existed in the area and multiplication of settlements. It is seen that19.8 %( 140) in29.7 %( 213) inG.B.II, and 50.2 %( 362) in GBIII. It is clear that GBIII is highly populated and settlements are more. It is seen that there are more than sixty local deities being worshipped. Such situations are directly related to Social evolution. The Groves are of great antiquity everywhere in the world. Hence Studies in the basis of Toponymy seems to be of great value (PhD page, Maps and reports 105,106, 111,112) 76

 

Toponymycal identification of ‘Feroke fort area’ built by Tippu Sultan in Calicut was my first area study. Various Type of areas were later analysed for Toponymycal studies. The summary of such area studies are given as part II of this theoretical dessertation77                          

                                               

                                 

 

 

 

                                                                                                      XIII

 

1 PrimaryVillages, Kaavuthattakams, Areas, Hinterlands and Regional studies.

 

  a.Lokanaar kaavu:

 

   Signifiers of Shrine-uuR-Prehistoric site and Tribes/Aborigines in a cluster. (Ref: Place names of Calicut district-1988,NM Nampoothiry)reveal stable settlements. Lokanarkaavu is situated in the segment of   land – Chemmarathur.Village name is cem+marutha+uuR, ie.a prosperous marutham settlement. ‘Cemmarathi’ is a female deity associated with kathivanuur viiran theyyam. This concept has no relevance in the name of this village.Cemmarathur- Memunda-Meppayuur cluster of villages forms a low land in the marutham wet land. 

      The primary village (nodal point) is shrine lokanaar kaavu .This area has is about 2500-3000 acres.Around this core thus a marutham area on the coast. There is an upper table land of about 40000 acres of hillocks and its valleys. This surrounding upper table land can be taken as the Secondary thattakam of kaavu (sacred shrine) or close “Hinterland” of port in terms of urban geography principles.

    On the west of Meppayil village close to it, the present Badagara market is situated. Old Vadakara market-pazhayanggaaTi-was close to Meppayil.Now it is known as thazheyangaati. The name Atakkaatheru in this area is a signifier of cash crop cultivation in the hinter land areas. The ancestral house of Thacholi family existed in this area. They are the heroes described in Vatakkan pattukal or Ballads of north Malabar. The family and its branches worshipped Kaavilamma as their paradevatha or family deity. The Kaavilamma was their kalari paradevatha also.They were heroes of martial arts.

 

b. Emergence of new thattakams around the sacred shrines.

 

     The land records of lokanarkaavu reveal that the family and its branches surrendered nearly 2000 plots of lands of various measurements in villages in the surrounding hinterland areas to kaavilamma o the principal deity of Lokanar kaavu. The land thus forms a kaavuthattakam of Thacholikurupp family. They were supposed to be higher class Nair community. They converted their land as Devine Land. The purpose of this activity  is not known. However the action started in 15th cAD .The foreign traders like Portuguese, Dutch, etc started there trade relations during this period. The resources from the land were taken by the landlords themselves show that there were some threats towards the ownership of land and some feud between families for the income from the land. A portion of the income is set apart for temple rituals and the remaining part is used by the land owners for their own purposes. It is to be noted that there is an interpretation of historians that there was no ownership of land d for community other than Brahmins. It is wrong. The land transaction was done by the nair and iilava community according to these land records during the period 1500 AD to1800 AD. The feuds are described at length in   Vatakkan pattukal.The feuds existed between various groups in the area. There were no original Brahmin settlements in Kadattanaatu or Kurumbranaatu Taluks. These factors need further grass root level studies.

 

c.Comparison of Brahmin upagramas and Thattakam formations of kaavu system.  

  

        New Brahmin Upgramas were created by Chieftaincies around a temple according to inscriptional evidences of Kulasekhara period and later. The same pattern is seen here .This thattakam was made by Nair Community. The new formation was approved by Kadattanaattu Atiyoti, the uuraalas of the temple. These types of thttakams might have been formed by other groups in earlier times too. Kazhakams connected to sacred groves in northern most kerala in theyyam system, Urraaly-uuR concept in Pateeni etc clearly reveal that there existed social friction between various classes of aborigines or lower class people in early days. This Factor of social evolution is totally ignored, suppressed and marginalized by our main stream historians.

 

D Evolution of sthaani thattakams.

      

The methodology adopted in the study of place names of Calicut deserves special mention here. The work was a pioneering one in the study of malayaala naattu village. This work thoroughly discussed the evolution of kerala village and growth of settlements in kerala. Relelevant part of the remarks made by Dr K V Ramesh is given here to focus the methodology and approval of the scholars in Archaeology and History The methodology adopted by the author leaves nothing to be desired; the thoroughness with which he has dealt with socio economic and cultural as well as religious and political aspects…lend to this stupendous research work a high degree of authenticity ,meaning and utility,…In the interest of the fast emerging discipline of place names studies the present thesis should become a model and trend setter from the point of view of the quality….Nonetheless, the vary fact that this is the first thesis of its kind, taking at once due cognizance of topography and geography of a given region, the growth of settlements therein, the growth of urbanization and trade, justifies to a great extent the thousand and odd pages into which the treatment has run.”

 

  It is clear that there are various evolutionary stages in the growth of settlements. The primary centralized village or nodal point or CORE settlement in kerala attained it’s stability because of the fertility of land, natural and other resources, availability of water, communication facilities n etc. in general stability and nature of habitat are directly proportional factors. In the initial stage the worship was limited around a piece of wood, a tree, a stone etc.later the settled life around it open the way to conduct worship as a group of settlers. There arises a social worship system and this becomes the core village. The area of the small settlement become the thattakam of the sacred grove.The thattakam is ruled by the power structure emerged from the people of the core village. Such villages in various locations enable to form large thattakams and in due course economic growth and urban situations brings new power structures, migrations of various groups of people. Basic core village becomes suppressed. New rulers emerge out and they create their own thattakams. There are such sthaani tattakams every where .Zamorins power structure and Cherical administration proves this beyond doubt. Neduganaatu study proves that the kaavu thattakams had the same sthaaniis of the chieftaincies.However they have separate      Titles in kaavu and in political power structure of the Chieftains. Nedunganaattu patanayar was the sthaani of Neduganaatu rulers in the 13thcAd.He was the sthaani of  the large mulayamkaavu thattakam comprising 15 ceRu mulayankaavu thattakams .Naming of sthaaniis by chieftains is a ritual (investiture ceremony).The title giving function is seen in teyyam systems of north Malabar. Neeleswaram records of teyyam festival are an example. The aacaarappattola of aLLaTam swaroopam of 1993:Name of the person-Venugopalan:aacaarappeeru-Matikkai perumalayan.A few such names are given here:Panikkar,naayaraccan,kurupp,Nampyaar, etc.There are 88 Titles seen in 1993-2004( Theyyathile jaathivazhakkam, Dr sanjeevan azheekkode,2007)These circumstantial evidences show that Super imposition of new thattaka system were emergeing in the different stages.  Before the advent of Brahmins in kerala, various groups of people were controlling the village life based on economy, power, customs and manners etc of the malayaala way of life. The locations of tribes were transformed to other settlements and their life patterns were introduced.  In the same way the system of worship in the sacred groves were transformed to Brahminical worshiping system or Kshetras in later times. But the basic system was not completely lost. This can be sorted out by rigorous grass root studies.

 

     An important factor in the core village is the concept of muulasthaanam. It is seen that in puliyuur village the muulasthaanam is a little west of the present Vaishnava temple on a small elevated land Karumaanikkathu mala. Annualy this sthaanam is remembered through a ritual. The bhagavathi was supposed to be worshipped by a Kaniyaar family of the village. In Aryan kaavu the muulasthaanam is in the hut of a tantaan, a lower class kutiyiruppu. Kaavil pooram was started with the permission of the lower class people. After the pooram in the Kaavu, it is closed by the pooram in the KuTiyiruppu .In Kotikkunnu there is a muulasthaanam on the south side of the kaavu in kulamukku pazhayagaati.The rituals in this sthaanam is conducted by manaaLan group of people. They are trade groups living in the area. In pootuurkkavu also there is a muulasthana concept.

    There is a concept of maccil Bhagavathi in one of the land lord’s house in the vicinity of the kaavu. In kodungallur the presence of Bhagavathi is in house on the northern side of the kaavu. In pottuur the presence of the Bhagavathi is in the house of a lower class rpresentative mannan.Th

    Yet another system is that the visit of velichappatu in the KuTiyiruppu of various people. In the pateeni festival the uurali visits four or five prominent houses in the core village initially.Other visits are done by him only after visiting these houses.

   These situations also reveal that the actual kaavu thattakam was belonged to lower class people or aborigines. Ownership of the thattaka system was gradually taken over by higher classes and the intrusion of Brahmin system was a necessity of the holders of the thattakam. The peculiar divinity implemented by Brahmins was a tool to the power structure of uTayavars and sthaanis. By 16th c AD these a sthaaniis were rulers of the land. Under each Utayavar chieftaincy, there existed Sthaani families. they ruled the tara,tattakam,temple ,market,port and al other factors.it is seen that they are collecting tolls and they are conducting festivals in temples an sacred groves .They are entering into contracts for trade with mainland traders aswell as maritime traders and trade corporate groups. Thus each kaavuthattakam was under the control of a land lord sthaani family. (See Malabar studies saamuuthirinaatu; Keralasamskaaram akavum puravum; Sthaanaarohana rekhakal; Maamaankam rekhakal–All books are authored by N M Nampoothiri.) There were more than 60 small principalities in kerala .each taluk was a principality under the rule of sthaani groups. This is the situation prompted this researcher to do segmental studies and Regional studies taking a taluk as a unit.

 

e.The Lokanaar kaavu: Topographical and Geographical situations.  

 

     There are neithluurs and pattanams in the coastal area. This suggests that urbanization started even in sangham period. Neithaluurs were production centres of marine products like salt, fish etc.Pattanams were small port towns. It is clearly proved recently that pattanam in paravuur near Cranganur was a large port having trade with western part of the world. The toponyms helped the archaeologists to do excavations there. Study of distribution patterns of uur generics, habitat generics, etc also reveals this. Thus toponymical survivals are very important.

  

   Around this area Toponyms like neithaluur and pattanam are seen. It signifies that pre historic settlements were becoming micro urban centres. These centres were gradually developed macro markets of the coastal area. They in course of time developed as ports also this is reflected in the toponyms like pattanam in the sangham age. Behind the development of pattanams, in the hinterland areas, there are annaaTiis and neithaluurs. A thorough toponymical survey and systematic study of distribution of toponyms are to be done to get a clear picture of these developments. These types of analyses are done in the Calicut area related to the heritage of Calicut. (Study of place names in the Calicut district 1988.) 

 

      The shrine lokanarkaavu must be the centripetal force of this exchange centre .There must be CeRu kaavus with micro thattakams to support this shrine. Each shrine is a nodal point were people assemble to do rituals .This type of assembling of villagers or settlers of the surrounding places  become the dynamism for the development of small markets. Each kaavu has its hinterland areas to supply necessary resources to promote the trade in the area. Pre- historic centres of mother Goddess thus become market centres too.

       Lokanaar kaavu centre has large area of cultivable land of cash crops around it. Tradition says that the kadathanaat ruler had 18 kaavu thattakams under him in 12thc AD.A parallel situation can be seen in Calicut Area of Zamorins of Calicut which is discussed earlier. Zamorins had Chericals (small divisions of administrative units of land) on the banks of Bharathappuzha river system. A study of maamaakam, the 12 yearly Trade festivals at thirunaavaaya a place on the banks of Bharathappuzha, is one of the best examples of port and market development schemes adopted by people of “Malayaala naatu”. The Festival was depended upon the enormous number of kaavu thattakams of the river valley. There were well defined systems and everything is systematically arranged to satisfy the need of ports at Ponnani and Calicut. It was a great dynamism in the area in the promotion of trade and exchange also. In the  Varakkal - Puthiyannati centre at Calicut Pooram festival was conducted to promote production and internal as well as maritime market. (Maamaamkam study; Malabar studies –saamoothirinaatu.1996, 1997).

 

f.Sacred Grove system and Ports in kerala

 

 The Kaavu system is thus the back bone of Port and market. In the kerala coast, each and every port is seen invariably supported by a “kaavu” .Now a Kaavu-Market axis is formed. This is the Multi - Nodal point system of Maritime trade and mainland trade existed in kerala. The system was the basic structure of market system in Hinterland areas also. Later this system is adopted when kaavu system was transformed to Kshetra system of great Culture. It is Temple-Market axis development.

 

In kerala each port area show a strong kava thattakam in the close hinter land  of the port.Maataayikkaavu(koolathunaatuEzhimala)Kalarivaatukkalkaavu(Chirakkal)Azheekkal(kannuurValarpattanam)Andaluurkkaavu(Dharmapattanam)Lokanaarkaavu (Puthuppattanam)Panthalaanikkaavu or Pishaarikkavu (Panthalaanikkollam)Varakkal kaavu(Varakkalputhiyangaati)Valayanaatukavu,muunnaalingalkaavu(KozhikkodeVelaapuram)niramkaithakkottakavu(Chaliyam)Vettathukaavu(vettom)Trikkavu(Ponnani)Kodungallurkkavu(KodungallurMuciri)Corranikkarakkaavu(Trippunithura) karthiyayinikkaavu(Cherthala)Iizhakkavuinpazhayangadi,Palaviitukaav(Allappuzha) Cakkulathukaav(Vazhzhzppalli)Perunnakaavu(Neythaluur,Peruneythal,puzhzvaathukkal in Changanacheri)Murukkaveli kaavu in Purakkad  (Ampalappuzha)

Thalavati,Thakazhi,Edathua,Mankompu,Kaavaalam,Nedumudi,Nedumprayar,PaandanaadPulinkunnuandparumala(All are in the Kuttanaad area linked to other Kaavutattakams of Kuttanaad and hilly tracks  in the eastern part of Alleppy distrct.The link of the kaavu thattakams of 44 kaavu is based on PaTeeni.)Eastern hilly areas with forest produces and cash crops are moved to ports of western coast and this network of kaavu system has of great role in the movement of resoures to the ports at purakkad, trikkunnappuzha, Kaayamkulam, and karunaagappali. A series of kaavu is on the eastern bank of Vembanaattu kayal (Back waters).A number of ports is on the western bank of the back waters. Movement of produces were based on kaavuthttaka system.Kuttanad has its own peculiar geographical set up. We have to study the cultural factors of the area considering these peculiarities. ChettikulangaraandKandiyuurmarrom (kaayamkulam) Panamkaavu (kollam) Thiruvaaraattukaavu (arringal) aarrukaal (Thiruvanathapuram vizhinjam) mandakkaattu kaavu (kulachal) Etc are back bones of ports in such areas.

 

g.Sacred groves on the banks of Nila river valley

    

    Most of the shrines on the bank of Bharathppuhzha also reveal these cultural dimensions. The pioneering work on Vaaniyamkulam done as a case study of the project Cultural geography and habitat of Nila river valley (1998-2000) include the grass root level analysis of aaryankaavu thattakam and kavalappara swaroopam. The nodal points in the thattakam were trangali angaati and vaaniyamkulam weekly market and temples along with aryankaavu. The tolpaavakkoothu, a ritual conducted by pulavars of koonathara nakaram (Corporate body of administration vaaniyamkulam trade centre).They used to conduct tolppavakkoothu in 48 kaavu centres. The kaaLavaravu, taalappoli, kuthirakettu etc are also conducted annually as a part of the kava festival. Thus the aaryankaavu primary thattakam covers a large area of hinterland to support Trade and exchange i the main land areas .The same system of consolidating kaavuthattakam is seen in Kotikkunnu and poottur kaavu on the bank of Nila river valley. Nedunganaatu regional study based on kaavu thattakams is done at grass root level in this paper. Kolamukku angaati on the banks of nila koppam angaati, palayaangaati etc are major nodal points in the area.these are well known to far off hinterland areas too. In northern kerala kazhakam system and perumkaliyaattom system prove that kaavu thattakams were the basic factor in the processes of urbanization of villages and consolidation to larger segments of the land to Regions or naatu in kerala. The famous Ramavillyam kazhakam there are 94 teyyams comes to the thattakam of taayparadevatha. The taay paradevatha concept in all parts of kerala is basically Kannaki deity. - and finally it has umbilical relation to Knnaki deity of Kodungalluur.  “Kodungalluur muthaaci” is the basic concept seen related to all primary or other kaavu deity. This seems to be a later development. The concept of Mother Goddess of early people seems to be super imposed with the Trade deity kannaki of Sangham literature. The deity Kannaki was migrated to keralacoast from Pandyacountry. It is believed that the junior king ILam ko aTikal of 1st Chera dynasty built a temple at Kodungalluur for Kannaki. The deity is worshipped by all lower groups of people in kerala. Thus the earlier deity concept is transformed to Kannaki, a Goddess of trade in the urbanization process It is seen that in kerala trade and divinity are linked together even from very early times. In later period divinity is projected in different ways .All deities have peculiar umbilical relations. A deity in a kaavu is believed to be the sister of another deity in another kava. Sometimes the kavukal of these deities are faraway places. Thus that much area becomes the divine land of the two deities .The deities meet together in festivals annually. A number of such Devi/deva sangamams are seen in Festivals like pooram taalappoli viLakku etc. All kaavu thattakams on the coastal towns are seen linked to kodungallur.

                  As pointed out earlier every port on western coast of kerala has a divine nodal point- kaavu.kaavuthattakam around this smallest kaavu-a single village shrine is the primary hinter land. The area is a valayam(circle).It can be taken as grama valayam. The graamavalayam cotain a number of habitation houses of various group of people. These houses are “kuTiyiruppukal”. The oracle or Velichappatu of the kaavu periodically visits the kutiyiruppu to maintain the sacredness of the area by giving anugraha to his makkal (children.)This area is the divine land.

 

h.Sample Study of a ‘Core village’ –Primary village and primary kaavu thattakam-puliyuur

  

     An example is given in the study of puliyoor devine village (Divya Desam). The maps show the divine kaavutattakams of a single village based on revenue map. But the actual village is only the ‘Valayam’ inside the kaavu system around the present Vishnu temple. The present Vishnu temple is established by Vaishnavites in 7th cAD-Before their advent there were some prehistoric sites, and shrines. In the same locations close to the pre historic sites there were uuRs, settlements of tribes and shrines. Karumaanikkathu mala was the hillock were the shrine of mother goddess existed.During the advent of vaishnavites the shrine was suppressed and ritualistically connected to the temple of Vishnu. Once in a year the western door of the temple was opened and in memory of the muulasthaanam of the temple a lamp is litted on the western door. On this day All lower classes are permitted to enter the temple through the western door. There are seven kaavu centres around the temple in the area of a panchayath.This area is approximately 30000 acres. But the muulastaananam or primary central point was karumaanikkathu mala and a few kutiyiruppukal around the kaavu nodal point. This type of muulasthaana sankalpam (concept of place of origin) is seen in pottuur kaavu and kotikkunnu kaavu.In many places in view of the transformation of thattakam, a concept of “maccil Bhagavathi” is introduced. It is discussed earlier.

         In the Lokanaarkaavu area ,higher class Nair group kalari kurup community  who settled there made a devine thattakam in later times.This  ‘Nair thattakam’ is  made by 13thcAD.-by surrendering land to Kaavilamma as noted above.The primary kaavuthattakam was there .

 

i. Hinterland studies:

 Lokanar kaavu, Calicut port and Nila river valley Kaavuthattakams.

      

           Contacts of Lokanarkaavu area to the other parts of the mainland is important.The kaavu is in the low land almost in the centre of upper table land of nearly 30000 acres encircling of hillocks. It is clear that the settlement signifies the time of sangham literature. Other situations suggest that there emerged a large market centre during very early days .It again suggests the nature of habitat and availability of articles and the influence of habitat on molding the culture of the habitants. Such subject for study was taken up for investigation in 1998, and the title was “Cultural Geography and Habitat of Nila river valley”. The Lokanarkaavu area has a large cultivable land in the taluks around it along with availability of forest products from the surrounding taluks. Contacts to far-off hinterlands are suggested by trade routes and navigable river systems. It is connected by land routes to Wynad, Mysore and areas beyond them. River system Agalappuzha connects the kaavuthattakam to panthalaani kollam an earliest port and koorappuzha river mouth and Puthiyangaati on the banks of koorappuzha. Varakkal Kaavutattakam and pishaarikaavu thattakam on the southern part are inter- connected with lokanar kaavu thattakam forming a net work of kaavu thattakams on the southern side of Lokanaarkaavu. The koorappuzha is connected to Tamaraseery Pass in Calicut taluk. A large number of internal kaavu thattakams are there in the GBI,GBII,GBIII,of Calicut Taluk of 200 revenue villages. This important factor is discussed in the thesis on place names of Calicut. Thus the early kaavutattakams and their inter relations are visible. These areas were under the Political control of early Puuzhinaatu or some other divisions during Sangham period. In later times Inscriptions prove that the area was under Kurumbranaatu, Polanaatu, and Purakilaanaatu of Second Cheras of Mahodayapuram.

     A parallel observation of area study of Kaavutattakams done are: kaavuthattakams of Edappal Cunkam hinter land of Ponnani port;Pottuur kaavu thattakam on the east of Edappal on the Nila river banks which forms continuous thattakam area of trikkavu in Ponnani; Kutallur –kotikkunnu kaavuthattakam;Poyilam trittala tattakam; Nedunganad and its 20 kaavutattakams and Aryan kaavu tattakam of Vaniyamkulam. These thattakams were puuzhinaatu/kutanaatu etc in the sangham period. Later it was Eraalanaatu, Valluvanaatu, Nedunganaatu, Nedumpurainaatu etc of Second Cheras. In the medieval period these thattakams were under the control of Zamorins of Calicut or under the control of Perumpatappu Swaroopam.

 

      The kaavuthattakams of Malayaalanaatu were changed to “Naatu”- a political division - of Political powers. We must take up the segmental studies of primary kaavuthattakams and primary centralized village analysis in stage I. Area kaavutattakams in the Second stage. Kaavu thattakam studies as “Hinter land area studies” as a third stage .These approaches bring out kaavu- port-market-temple “Axis” existed in Kerala and the related Social evolution. Regional study is to be focused on such a methodology. The factors of power structure

 

     It is said that raavaari nairs, a group of traders migrated to pishaarikaavu thattakam near panthalaayani port .They came from Venaad looking trade prospects (kurakkenikkollam).They gradually migrated to puthuppattanam and later to lokanaar kaavu thattakam.They were able to utilize all resources of the area of hinter lands for their trade prospects.

 

  Another group of traders migrated to putuppattanam from Cochin area was Marakkaar families. They were Rice importers. They became an important Sthaani of zamorins of Calicut and obtained the title KunjaaliMarakkar. They were entrusted with the protection of Puthuppattanam port. They built a Fort near the port area. They also were in need of resources of the area.

 

    Nair classes were more than 30 in number in the Lokanar kaavu area. Kalari kurupp class was the high class Nairs and according to them raavaariis is lower class. This inturn brought between the groups. There is a possibility to emerge social friction between marakkar group and the raavaariis for trade prospects. The same kind of conflict might have been there between marakkars and kalari kurupp families because this kalari group was looking after temple administration. They were well trained in fencing system. They had famous fencing schools.

 

The last group to be mentioned here is the puthuuram group. Their native village or ancestral house is not yet identified. It is said that they belong to Kaiveli village in naadaapuram. However they were also kalari group.

The Nambiar class was also settled there. They were the ruling class .According to them their kulapara devatha or ancestral deity was Chuzhali Bhagavathi of northern most kerala. This means that these groups were branches of Nambiars of kolathu naatu

 

     Social friction between all these groups was prevalent in the area. This was a time when maritime trade was increasing. Portuguese and Dutch traders were already doing maritime trade on the Calicut coast.

 

Family feud was the basic nature of the friction. The social groups are very strong in all aspects.They were economically in high positon. They were promoting their family interest in trade as explained earlier. Kunjaliimarakkar group was supported by Zamorins of Calicut. raavaariis must have some support from Venad rulers because they are trading group from Kollam port .Thacholi group was supported by kadathanaattu atiyoti, the ruling family of the area. Kottayam kings, rulers of Wynad of 13th c AD must also have some interest in the facilities of Coastal Ports in the kadathanaatu and kurumbranaatu area.

  

The belief that Ceekor families were migrated from iizham (Ceylon) is alo to taken into account. They are trade oriented community according to some scholars. They have kazhakam system, taRa system and teyyam system. Tara is the smallest unit of Ezhava/tiyya social structure where the Female Deity is worshipped. It is not known whether the puththuuram group maintained such systems or not.

 

    There existed continuous friction among all section of society in kadathanaad .Family feud was the basic nature of these frictions. Thus a study of family histories in the area is a necessityto understand this kind of social situation. Families related to thacholi and puthuuram were great heroes in martial arts. The heroes always interfere in finalizing feuds between Families. Ultimately the problem is settled by kalari matsaram or Martial fight between puthuuram ceekor and thacholi kurup. Thacholi kurup was an authority of lokanaar kaavu. The temple belonged to Kadathanaattu atiyoty, the ruler of kadathanaatu. Kadathanaatu Raja was decedents of Porlaathiri of poluur in Kozhikkode. They were forced to leave Calicut and became the rulers of kadathanaatu. Polanaad in Calicut was their territory, which is now identified from uuRca records of polanaatu. This transfer of power in kadathanaadu was also areas on for friction. It is believed that the sacred shrine Lokanar kaavu belonged to raavaari nayar group in the earlier days. It was taken over by thacholi kurup and kadathanaad raja. It is possible that raavaariis came to pishaari kaavu area and migrated to Lokanar kaavu thattakam and brought the shrine under their control. As noted Shrines are the back bones of port. This situation was avoided by teachable group and kaavu was taken over by them. A number of social situations, political power interferences and trade interests were their in this area to control the ports. It is not yet surveyed the problems related to Puththuuram family Group. They might have maintained kazakam system. This system is powerful in consolidating the social power of each caste. Koyma system in each kaavu where teyyam festival conducted reveals the social factors at grass root level. Probably this tradition was continued by puthuuram kalari families also. But they were supposed to be a group migrated from iizham or Ceylon. They might have intention to take over Lokanar kaavu when they arrived from iizham. In this feud, puthuuram group failed. There existed kalari system in iizham also. All these factors are to be analysed on interdisciplinary approach. However the ports at Puthuppanam, Panthalaayini kkollam, porlathiri’s port at kozhikkode and Kurakkenikkollam were factors behind the social frictions in kadathanaatu area. It is clear that all these situations were there in 13thand 14thc AD .These basic factors in urbanization process in kadathanaatu and kurumbranaatu deserve grassroot analysis in particular and kerala in general for getting economic, trade. And social history of kerala. The social history in the area under discussion is of centuries after the fall of Cheras of Mahodayapuram. We have to analyse the social situations of pre chera period. The anthropological and ethnographical studies are to taken up.

This period is very important. Growth of regional Chieftaincies was fast during13th

-14th c AD. Inscriptions, literary works, Folklore, Toponymyand Foreign notices prove these developments. Enormous urban centres were coming up in the pre Kulasekhara period. These are evidenced by Chera Incriptions. The gradual increase in urban centres is seen in later century’s .Large families who were holders of power also are identified by this researcher. Distribution map of them in Kerala as a whole is also prepared. Study of Zamorins records, Venad inscriptions and records Payyannur pattu, early champu works etc are all evidences of this evolution.

 

  The utaivars of Kulasekhara period continued the administration of the land even after the fall of Kulasekharas. They became local chieftains and hold their own territories. In 12th cAD, there were more than 13 principalities. Each principality was administered by Sthaaniis under the Chieftains. The power and economy was with the sthaani families. They took over   the sacred shrines with their property and sacred grove administration from the local lower class people who owned the grove. Later these were transformed to Temples of puranic Gods and Goddesses. In northern kerala the number of sacred groves and systems of their own was enormous. Zamorins was the powerful ruler in that area. It is seen that he was consolidating sacred kaavu after transforming it to temples of puranic deities. To serve this purpose he introduced Pttatthaanam, System of Brahmin yogams in temples and took initiative to construct temples of great culture in the locations of sacred groves.                                                              

 

The local chieftains and their sthaani were manipulators of land and economy of the aborigines. Aborigines and early tribes were the actual owners of sacred groves and their properties. They managed everything in the sacred groves under the consent of a kuuttaayma or a collective system of local habitants of the thattakam. But the chieftaincies made socio religious intrusions in the kaavu system as a whole. Thacholi kurupp group with martial power and kadathanaattu atiyoty with political strength were the power nodal points in 13th

c AD. This thattakam along with Kaliyaampallikaavu thattakam (Etacheeri Village) and pulli vettakkaramakan kaavu In Atakkaatheru in Arakkilad village belong to the katathanattu atiyoti. Atakkaatheru kkavu has Thira utsavam .It is a clear signifier that the sacred grove belonged to Lower class people or Tribes. The kaavu belonged to kulaala caste settled there. Under the territorial power of kadathanaattu atiyoti, there are 18 sacred groves. All these thattakams and segmental thattakams and micro thattakams are to be identified to get the real malayaala naatu segment in kadattanaatu ,a chieftaincy.This will bring out the actual settlement patterns ,details of habitants in early days etc. it will bring out the economic history and  stages of cultural evolution and stages of Urbanisation. A detailed analysis is done in the Nedunganaatu Region on the Nila river valley.   During the period ie.13-14thc AD the regional rulers and sthaniis were fighting among them to control economyintheirprincipalities.InVatakara,Puthuppananam,puthiyangaadi,Calicut,Valarpattanam,Ezhimala and other port areas ,sthaaniis were interfering in maritime trade during the period. These factors were not at all discussed in main stream history of kerala. 29 -09 -2009

Paper on Local History

Footnotes

1 works (website content )

2 It took nearly Fourteen years (1974 to 1988) to analyse the village settlements of Calicut based on 200 villages. The analysis was inter disciplinary. Later based on Swaroopam records the political system of Zamorins was analysed .It gradually entered in to the analysis of Cultural evolution studies on the river valley Nila. Ultimately a methodological concept to study the village history was evolved. A case study was brought forward under the assistance of a UGC project during 1998-2001.It is Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer .The area studies are being done to history of larger segments

(a) Indian Toponomy .A critical Evaluation of work done in India with Bibliography of 300 entries of research papers ONOMA, Vol: XXIIIpp; 118-148.1979 (b) Indian Toponymy-A study of Modern Trends with exhaustive Bibliography of 450 entries. PLANS BulletinTrivandrum1985 pp.17-63 (c) Study of Place Names in Kerala: PLANS Trivandrum 1979 Published in 1985{4) & (5):(3) Sthalappeerenna ahalykku Mooksham 1& 2:Malayalanaadu weekly April 1976 Serial Nos 3-1976 April, 4- 1976 April, 5-1981,6-1982,7-1982,8-1982,9-1985,10-1985,11-1987,12-1980,13-1984,14-1985,15-1983,16-1985,17-1979,18-1985,19-1992,20-1986,21-1990,22-1989,23-1994,24-1990,25-1989,26-1990,27-mapingEtc, along with later studies like Araamprom, poottuur kaavu, Vaaniyam kulam and Legacy of Nila project under UGC completed in 2001 are pioneering works in village history. No 1-1979 1st paper on Indian Toponomy in ONOMA, Belgium, No: 2-1985 Indian Toponomy PLANS Trivandrum with BIBLIOGRAPHY 1st attempt in Kerala (All about my work, Maps and Reports Folders)For getting an idea of differences between the approaches of Kerala History in University Text books approved by all Universities in Kerala and ordinary research books based on Area studies based on Toponomy etc content pages of my book ‘Kerala Culture Akavum Puravum’ and the text book are given (Maps and Reports, PhD 1,2)Reviews of my book. Reports on the Inter disciplinary Seminar conducted in 1997 in the ORC SNGS COLLEGE PATTAMBI in media are given here(.Reviews/Nila seminar reports /papers/ Legacy study Infrastructure)Legacy of Nila is a conceptual frame work conceived to extend the Study Of Village Culture Rigorously. UGC project “Cultural Geography and Habitat of Bharathappuzha river valley”(1998-2001)was conducted to develop interdisciplinary approach to the village studies, Area studies and Regional studies The Project was taken up on the basis of the ideas collected from:1.Toponomycal Studies of Calicut And Political history based on Zamorins Records 2.Inter disciplinary study of River valley of Bharathappuzha-The Legacy Of Nila(March 1995) 3.Inter disciplinary Seminar to formulate a methodology considering the Traditional Knowledge of NILA River Valley conducted in1997.8There is only very few palm leaf manuscripts in Vattezhuthu. /Koolezhuthu.The only one Vattezhuthu record is a short one recorded on a bamboo piece. One or two palm leaves were in koolezhuthu which include the Valayanattu Kaimukku Record. The Epigraphist of Calicut University Sri M.R.Raghavavarier deciphered these two and I duly acknowledged it in the reports and descriptive catalogue of the records in 1987(Saamuthiri charithrathile Kanappurangal Vallathol Vidyapeedom ,Sukapuram1987) However Researchers were informed by somebody that all these records are in old scripts (Vatteluthu and kooleluthu) and deciphered all of them in to modern Malayalam by Dr Varrior.It is not true Researchers those who were in need of these records for their works were thus kept away from this unique collection.. All these records are in Malayalam Scripts Ihave helped many researchers to verify them when they approached me with the permission of Vidyapeedom secretary.

Village studies, Capital city analysis etc is incompletely done by Mr.M .R. Raghavavarier in his Research papers and books without acknowledging earlier works done in toponomy (PhD Thesis Dr N .M.Nampoothiri, 1975-1988) He presented an endowment lecture in the conference of Place Names Society of India (Udippy, 24-4-1992) about Place name studies in Kerala under the title “Village community in pre colonial Kerala.” (Total Typed pages: 50. Total foot notes 76 Maps and Reports) He has not mentioned the work completed by me on Calicut village history in 1988. (PhD) The paper is dealing with all the aspects source materials and observations discussed by me in the thesis (1974-1988) A number of papers were also published by me during the period (Works, Summary of pioneering works) .The scholar has left out all these facts and presented every innovative ideas brought out in my works as his own findings.

There are more instances to point out at this context. However it is avoided considering Research Ethics.

3 Maps, Reports, Paper 33, 34, 35

4 Maps Reports, Papers 36-62

5 Maps Reports Papers

6 Cultural Geography and habitat of Bharathappuzha /Nila river valley .Works

7 Maps, Reports, Papers 33, 34, 35

8 Kozhikkodan Grandhavarikal

9Maps, Reports, Papers 36-62

10Maps Reports, Papers

11 This is the first of its kind in India Legacy of Nila, Media Reports

12 Maps, Reports, Papers.

13 PhD

14 Maps, Reports, Papers

15 Maps, Reports, Papers

16 PhD

17 Map, Reports, Papers 24, 63.

18 Maps, Reports, Papers 62-74

19 Maps, Reports, Papers

20 Maps, Reports, Papers 73, 74, 75

21 Maps, Reports, Papers

22 Maps, Reports,Papers 9-2323Maps,Reports Papers24,63,69,70

24 Maps and Reports: 9 22 25

25Maps,Reports,Papers26,27,28,29:Talappilly Study 30,31,32 25,76

26 (Maps ,Reports,Papers

27 IraanikkalamBrahmin settlement A study, Urban centers of Venaad, Placenames in Chera inscriptions works

28 Phd

29 Maps,Reports,Papers 1to 9,75,76

30 Maps ,Reports ,Papers1-9 Village wise and talukwise

31 Maps,Reports,Papers N0:77-80

32 Maps Reports,Papers 25, 76, Talappilly Study 30, 31, 32 25, 76

32 Maps, Reports,Papers 110,111,112,136

34 (Maps,Reports,Papers No: 64, 65, 66, 71, 75, 81, 82

35.Phd para4.12 to 4.14.4

36 Maps ,Reports,Papers 86to105

37 PhD

38 Maps, Reports,Papers 102, 103, 104, 105

39 Maps, Reports, Papers, 77 villages are 81,82,71,70 and 83.

40 Maps, Reports, Papers121-135

41 Maps, Reports, Papers 113-120

42.Keralasamskaaram Akavum PuRavum ,2002 Dr NM Nampoothiri,Pub;Central co-operative Society ,University of Calicut .See Contents Maps,Reports,Papers

43 Maps, Reports, Papers

44 PoTTuRkkaavu Aryankaavu KuutalluR-Kotikkunnu, Akavum Puravum

45 Maps, Reports, Papers

46 Case study of Aryan kaavu in Vaaniyamkulam vjnaniiyam, Report to UGC

47. Akamvum Puravum.

48 PhD

49 Lokanar kaavu Maps, Reports, Papers

50 Varakkal Grandhavari Malabar padanangal-Saamoothirinaatu State language institute Trivandrum2007, Heritage of Calicut Mathrubhoomi Publications 2007(Under Publication)

51.Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer, Zamorins and temple arts Akavum puravum

52 Payyannur paattu,Pettah(Market Festival)was conducted in Erumeli near Sabarimala

53 Poottur kaavu, kuutallur, koorranaatu, poyilam Akavum PuRavum Maps, Reports, Papers

54 Akavum puravum

55 PhD

56 Akavum puravum

57 Cranganur Maps, Reports, Papers

58 Vaaniyamkulam Gazetteer

59 PhD

60 Akavum puravum

61 Maps, Reports, Papers.

62 Akavum puravum

63 University of Calicut

64 PhD, Akavum puravum Maamaanka Rekhakal: Dr N.M Nampoothiri Vallathol Vidyapeedom Sukapuram 2006, Maps, Reports, Papers mamankataTTakam etc

65 Saamuuthiri Charitrathile kaanaappurangal, 1987

66 Village wise and Area wise Maps ,Reports ,Papers 113-120, 76.76.1, 77, 77.1, 102-105

67 PhD

68 PhD

69 Maps ,Reports, Papers PhD

70 Aryankaavu, Pottuur kaavu, Kotikkunnu etc Maps, Reports, Papers

71 Akavum Puravumm Vaaniyamkulam, Kotikkunnu Maps, Reports, Papers

72 Akavumm PuravumContents Maps, Reports, Papers

73 Akavum puravum

74 Akavum Puravum, Malayalante Valiyatayaalangal,DC Books Kottayam 2007

75 PhD

76 PhD, Maps and reports 105,106, 111,112

77 List of surface investigations Surface level Area maps of Kaavu taTTakam formations giving distribution of factors with their inter-relations are marked these type of area maps are preparing for the 1st time in history of Kerala. These maps along with studies are published in Souvenirs

1 Mukkam 2 Distribution of Koli sufixes etc (suffixes and Prefixes)3 CeeNNamangallur 4 Meenchanda 5 KooTanchery 6 NaaTTupeerukal 7 Calicut studies in general 8Settlement patterns of various Groups of people and factors of Settlements 9 Parihaarapuram 10 Nediyiruppu 11Kottakkal.12 Lokanar kaavu 13 Mint area at Calicut.14Manaasseri 15 .Peerum porulum 16 Mannum manushyanum17 Tirunnavaaya 18 Manmaranja koovilakangal 19 Vella and Vilva mangalam 20 Kuruvayur vaTTom 21 Venganaatu Swaroopam.22 Disentagration of Calicut 23 Aadi Valluvanaatu 24Puthiyagaadi 25 Generaltalk on South malabar 26 Varakkal 27 Kunjali marakkar 27 KodungalluuR 28 Wynad 29 ManaanCira 30 Chinese Street at Calicut 31 Kakkoovu 32 Kaappad and kunjali marakkar 33 kaaveeri 34 Questionaire Nila/Place namesurvey 35 Kulasekharapuram.36 Dutch Kodungallur37 Kuudallur/kodikkunnu 38 Edappl Ponnani 39 Salt and Calicut 39 Vayyavinaatu 40 vijnanacintamony 41Musiris 42 Udayamperoor 43 Perumpadappu 44 Alleppuzha and

Boatsongs.and Boatrace 45 Agricultural songs 44 koratty mutthy See part II and Maps,Reports,Papers.

 

77 ( Only Examples of Toponomycal Maps and Reports etc are given in this paper. Their enlarged readable versions are in the link Maps and reports in the Home page.Village studies ,Toponomycal studies Etc are given in BLOG malayaalan .

enlarged readable versions are in the link Maps and reports in the Home page.Village studies ,Toponomycal studies Etc are given in BLOG malayaalan .

List of surface investigationsSurface level Area maps of Kaavu taTTakam formations giving distribution of factors with their inter-relations are marked these type of area maps are preparing for the 1st time in history of Kerala. These maps along with studies are published in Souvenirs1 Mukkam 2 Distribution of Koli sufixes etc (suffixes and Prefixes)3 CeeNNamangallur 4 Meenchanda 5 KooTanchery 6 NaaTTupeerukal 7 Calicut studies in general 8Settlement patterns of various Groups of people and factors of Settlements 9 Parihaarapuram 10 Nediyiruppu 11Kottakkal.12 Lokanar kaavu 13 Mint area at Calicut.14Manaasseri 15 .Peerum porulum 16 Mannum manushyanum17 Tirunnavaaya 18 Manmaranja koovilakangal 19 Vella and Vilva mangalam 20 Kuruvayur vaTTom 21 Venganaatu Swaroopam.22 Disentagration of Calicut 23 Aadi Valluvanaatu 24Puthiyagaadi 25 Generaltalk on South malabar 26 Varakkal 27 Kunjali marakkar 27 KodungalluuR 28 Wynad 29 ManaanCira 30 Chinese Street at Calicut 31 Kakkoovu 32 Kaappad and kunjali marakkar 33 kaaveeri 34 Questionaire Nila/Place namesurvey 35 Kulasekharapuram.36 Dutch Kodungallur37 Kuudallur/kodikkunnu 38 Edappl Ponnani 39 Salt and Calicut 39 Vayyavinaatu 40 vijnanacintamony 41Musiris 42 Udayamperoor 43 Perumpadappu 44 Alleppuzha and Boatsongs.and Boatrace 45 Agricultural songs 44 koratty mutthy See part II and Maps,Reports,Paper in the

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