Ph.D. Thesis Contents

 

Title : A study of placenames in the Calicut district (Badagara, Quilandy, South Wynad and Calicut Taluk)

Guide : Dr. K.N. Ezhuthachan and Dr. Chathanath Achyuthanunni, Dept. of Malayalam, University of Calicut.

CONTENTS

VOLUME - I.

Pages.

CHAPTER 0 INTRODUCTION 1-54

CHAPTER I TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOGRAPHY OF KOZHIKKODE 55-142

CHAPTER II RESOURS OF THE TALUK 143-213

CHAPTER III GROWTH OF SETTLEMENTS 214-328

CHAPTER IV URBANISATION AND TRADE EXCHANGE SYSTEM IN THE TALUK 329-489

CHAPTER V THE MEDIEVAL CITY COMPLEX AT CALICUT - A TOPONYMICAL 490-652

RECONSTRUCTION

CONCLUTION 653-650

CHARTS 661-673

GLOSSARY 674-743

INDEX MAPS A, B,C,D. 734-767

BIBLIOGRAPHY

768-815

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER 0 - INTRODUCTION.

0.1 Toponymy.

0.2 Main feature of toponymical evidence.

0.2.1 Common folk - the givers of place names.

0.2.2 Basic characteristics of place names.

0.2.3 List of names and generalisations.

0.2.4 Need of systematic study of place names.

0.3 Beginnings of Toponymical studies.

0.3.1 Three distinctive stages of Toponymical studies.

0.3.2 Second stage - Principles evolved during the period.

0.3.3 Third stage - principles evolved during the period.

0.4 Critical Evaluation of the work done in India. Beginnings.

0.4.1 Nama samgraha mala, work of ram Comul sen, Gundert etc.

0.4.2 Journals of Asiatic society of Bengal and Bombay.

0.4.3 W.F.S. and Indian Antiquary.

0.4.4 Studies based on field work.

0.4.5 Studies in the area of micro-toponomy, hydronomy etc.

0.4.6 First study of Malabar Place names.

0.4.7 Inscriptional place names.

0.4.8-9 Comparative study of place names and sociological values.

0.5.0 Studies in inter relation of place names - India and Ceylon.

0.5.1 Gnanaprakasar and sinhalese place names.

0.5.2 Horseburgs studies.

0.5.3 Kularatnam and ethnographical observations.

0.5.4 Inter relations of place names - India and south East Asia.

0.5.5 Dravidian names in persian plateau.

0.5.6 Compartive studies of Dravidian place names.

0.6 A spurt of actively in the field.

0.6.1 S.K. Chatterji and Bengali Studies.

0.6.2 N.K. Bose - Tribal settlement and migration of Tribals.

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0.6.3 Malabar place names -Ramapisharody, P.

0.6.4 Aryan, Gondi and savara languages - inter relation of names.

0.6.5 C. Narayana Rao and Telugu place name studies.

0.6.6 Advance of Indian Toponymy 1935-55

0.6.7 K.P. Achutha menon and the first Indian book on toponymy.

0.6.8 R.P. Sethu Pillai and Tamil place name studies.

0.6.9 Assamese place name - study by B. Kakati.

0.6.10 Krishna pada Goswamy and Bengali names - Unique classification.

0.6.11 Telugu place name studies - most scientific works.

0.6.12 Historical and Cultural Geography and Ethinography of Gujarat.

0.6.13 Minor studies in Indian toponymy.

0.6.13.1 Iswardutt and Indian place name society.

0.6.13.2 R.C. Hiremath - Linguistic studies.

0.6.13.3 Toponymy of Canara.

0.6.13.4 Place name society of India Conferences.

0.7 The utilitration aspect of place name studies.

0.7.1 Reconstruction of History.

0.7.2 Religious beliefs and rituals.

0.7.3 Heroes and their achievements

0.7.4 Social conditions and Institutions, Industries and other aspects.

0.7.5 Place names as lungistic evidence.

0.7.5.1 Lexicography.

0.7.5.2 Phonologhy.

0.7.6 Geographical evidence.

0.7.7 Flora and Fauna.

0.7.8 Geological evidences.

0.7.9 Ethnological values.

0.7.10 Cultural Geography.

0.7.11 Archaeological and Folkolristic values.

0.8 Principles to be followed in the study of the subject.

0.8.1 Eglian approch.

0.8.2 Isaac Tylor, H.D. Sankalia, S.K. Chatterje etc.

0.8.3 Structural analysis of place names.

0.8.4 Methods of classification of names.

0.8.4.1 J.J. Egli.

0.8.4.2 Encyclopaedia Britanica.

0.8.4.3 Isaac Tylor.

0.8.4.4 H.D. Sankalia.

0.8.4.5 Ramapisharody,P.

0.8.4.6 C.Narayana Rao.

0.8.4.7 Ramachandra Chettiar.

0.8.4.8 R.P.Sethu Pillai.

0.8.4.9 Krishnapada Goswami.

0.8.4.10 Thyuaga Raju.

0.8.4.11 K. Nachimuthu.

0.9.0 Aim of the present investigation - historical, sociological and cultural tradition, RIse of Kozhikkode into a

port town, Geography, Resources, Importance of the Headquarters of Zamorins of Calicut.

0.9.1 Scope and the area understudy : KOZHIKKODE - Taluk ; CALICUT -Corparation, KOZHIKKODE district -

study based on the revenue divisions existed in 1975-76.

0.10 Primary source materials.

0.11 Method of names and principles followed in their selection.

0.11.1 Types of names and principles followed in their selection.

0.11.1.1 Names of villages.

0.11.1.2 Names of fields.

0.11.2 Principles followed in the selection of specifics and generics.

0.11.2.1 Terminal portions - paRampu and nilam.

0.11.2.2 57867 names : 1157 avoided : 24319 : repetitions - 33548. dtudied.

0.11.3 A study of urbanisation - approaches.

0.11.3.1 Urban complex of villages.

0.11.3.2 Urban groups of villages.

0.11.3.3 Clusters of villages and isolated units.

0.12 Identification of urban complexes.

0.12.1 Procedure and principles in identification. There important factors - ‘AnnaaTi’, commercial centre,

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Administrative centres and industrial centres.

0.12.2 Factors of specialisation and rural peasant life, religious centres etc.

0.12.3 Other factors - topography, Geography, man made facilities etc.

0.12.4 Megalithic monuments and early settlements.

0.13 Identification of Groups.

0.13.1 Five divisions of Groups :piiTikas, paanTikasaalas, settlements of artisans and commercial people,

Rest-houses, agricultural production centres.

0.13.1.1 Clusters and isolated units. Identification.

0.14.0 Urban complexs and Groups in kozhikkode taluk.

0.14.1 Six complexs, Five groups : Number of villages and area of complexs - increase in field names and

increase in settlements - Nature of distribution of field names. details from settlement records.

0.14.2 Urban groups.

0.15.0 Geographycal and topographical classification of generics - wet, Dry and Garden.

0.15.1 Importance of wet, Dry and Garden land Generics and their implications.

0.15.2 Generics classified on the basis of meanings, wet, Dry and Garden land, Garden land, paddy field, Depths

elevation, undulating nature and other different aspects.

0.16 Concept of Geographical belts. For better analysis of coastal midland and hilly tracts.

0.17 Concept based on North Eastern half and south eastern half.

0.18 Lists of field names, Frequency list of generics, generic distribution lists, statistical tables, etc.

0.19 Charts, Geometric figures and distribution maps.

0.20 Inter deciplinary approch in toponymical studies - method followed.

0.21-22. Unaltered nature of earlier forms of field names in Kerala and their importance. A few technical terms and

under study etc.

CHPTER - I : TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOGRAPHY OF KOZHIKKODE.

1.1 Topography and Geography reflected in names.

1.1.1 NAGARM complex - villages.

1.1.1.1 Total number of generics - Generics indicative of undulating nature,wet land, depths, elevation, garden

land and fields.

1.1.1.2 NAGARAM andVALAYANADU, Common features in Generrics- NAGARAMcomplex and other complexes.

1.1.1.3 Generics indicative of elevation, nature of distribution, upper table land, gradual elevation to eastern

side.ss

1.1.2 KATALUNDI complex - villages, Total generics, generics of undulating nature.

1.1.2.1 Distribution of Kunnu, mala, munta,and general topographical peculiarities of elevation. Depths and Cliff.

1.1.2.2 River courses in the complex and topographical indications.

1.1.2.3 Generics indicative of Valleys and depths. Their significance. Wet land Generics, Dry land Generincs,

Garden land Generics, paddy field generics.

1.1.2.4 Wet land Generics and Garden land Generics, of high frequency.

1.1.3 PUTHIYANGADI Complex. villages, Generics indicative of undulating nature, kunnu, mala and maaTu.

1.1.3.1 The slope and topography.

1.1.3.2 River couses and indication of topography. Wet land generics, Dry land generics, Garden land generics.

1.1.3.3 Distribution of poyil and paTanna.

1.1.4 VALAYANATU complex. Villages.

1.1.4.1 Undulating nature, mala, manna, puRa and kunnu. Their distribution peculiarities.

1.1.4.2 River couses and indication of topography. Wet land generics, Dry land generics, Garden land generics,

Distribution of vaay, kali, tirutti, nunni, paTanna and poyil.

1.1.5 PALUR complex. Distribution of villages in GB I and GB II.

1.1.5.1 Total Generics . Generics indicative of undulative nature. Villages. Distribution of mala, manna and kunnu.

1.1.5.2 River courses and indications of topography. Wet land generics, Dry land generics, Garden land generics.

1.1.5.3 Wet land Generics of high frequency. Distribution of paaRa and poRRa.

1.1.5.4 Villages MAVUR, KALPALLI and ATUVATU.

1.1.6 KUTATTAI complex, villages.

1.1.6.1 Hills and Hillocks in PAVUR and KUTATTAI - comparison.

1.1.6.2 Total Generics . Generics indicative of undulative nature, comparison to VALAYANATU Complex. Garden

land Generics. Comparison to KUTATTAI and VALAYANATU complexs.

1.1.6.3 Comparison to coastal complexs. Wet land generics.

1.1.6.4 Disribution of generics indicative of elevated areas, pecularities of distribution, River courses and indication

of topography.

1.2 Topography and Geography reflected in Groups.

1.2.1 KUNNAMANGALAM Group. Villages, clusters and isolated units, their distribution in Geographical belts.

1.2.1.1 Frequencies and distribution of generics. in VENGERI cluster and in isolated units.

to1.2.1.2

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1.2.1.3 Distribution of the villages and fertility compared to complexes.

1.2.1.4 Comparison of wet, dry and garden land generics in complexes and in the groups. Comparison based on

percentage of distribution of generics.

1.2.2 KANNIPARAMPA Group. Villages, distribution of villages in Geographical belts.

1.2.2.1 Distribution, frequencies etc of the generics and comparison with complexes and comparison

KUNNAMANGALAM Group.

to1.2.2.2

1.2.2.3 Table showing comparison of distribution of generics with groups and complexes.

1.2.3 THAMARASSERY Group - Distribution of villages in clusters and isolated units. Distribution in

Geographical belts.

1.2.3.1 Comparison and analysis of distribution and frequencies of generics in the Clusters and in isolated units.

to1.2.3.2

1.2.3.3 Table showing coparison of distribution of Generics in the group and in Complexes.

1.2.3.4 Distribution and frequencies of Generics - Comparison with other groups.

1.2.4 NATUVALLUR Group. Distribution of villages in the Groups and Geographical Belts.

1.2.4.1 Distribution and frequencies of Generics in clusters.

1.2.4.2 Distribution and frequencies in isolated units - Table of comparison.

1.2.5 THAZHEKKOD Group villages and their distribution in Geographical belts.

1.2.5.1-2 Distribution and frequencies of Generics in clusters and in isolated units. Table of comparison.

1.2.5.3 Table of comparison of all groups and complexes regarding the % of wet, dry and Garden land generics.

1.2.6 Trade centres and % wet land Generics.

1.2.7 Geographical divitions and Trade Exchange centres.

1.3 General topography and Geography of the Taluk.

1.3.1 The Physiographical divitions and their peculiarities.

1.3.2 Geographical belts and cliff areas under Physiographical divitions.

1.3.3 Coastal belt and complexes.

1.3.3.1 Southern part of G.B. III - General topography and Slopes.

1.3.3.2 Northern part of G.B. III - General topography and Slopes.

1.3.3.3 Topography of NAGARAM Complex.

1.3.3.4 Sketch map - View of Cross Section of NAGARM from western part of VALAYANATU Complex.

1.3.3.5 Topography of Southern part of G.B. II - Villages on the western part of VALAYANATU complex.

1.3.3.6 Eastern part of VALAYANATU Complex.

1.3.3.7 Eastern part of G.B. III close to G.B. II . The cliff. Description of the cliff- Distribution of villages in the area.

Two gap formation in the cliff.

1.3.3.8 Distribution of plain lands in G.B. III.

1.3.3.9 Nature of soil reflected in place name generics. Other evidences and observations data based on place

name generics and land assessment revenue records - comparison.

1.3.4.1 Topography in general - G.B. II - Southern boundary. Elevation to KUTATTAI Complex. River courses and

indications of the slopes.

1.3.4.2 Hills and hillocks in larger scale in G.B. II- Evidences of undulating nature. Undulating nature reflected in

villages in Groups.

1.3.4.3 Distribution of hillocks. Distribution of hillocks in villages. Importance of the distribution on the northern half

G.B. II.

1.3.4.4 G.B. II and nature of the ‘midland’ area.

1.3.5.1 G.B. I and its northern half.

1.3.5.2 Undulating nature of G.B. I and higher range of variation. Table of comparison to G.B. II.

1.3.6.1 Elevation and fertility of the soil. Elevation, plain Iands, range of variations general review of all the

Geographical belts.

1.3.6.2 Fertility explained on the basis of frequencies of generics. Evidences of soil Survey reports and other

reports.

1.4.1 Topography and Geography reflected in specifics, villages names, field names etc. Classification.

1.4.1.2 Village names reflecting topographical features and table of the names.

1.4.1.3 Percentages of fertility reflected in village names - in general.

1.4.1.4 Unfertility reflected in village names; distribution of such village names and G.B. III.

1.4.1.5 Villages on the northern part of G.B. III and Southern part of G.B. III.

1.4.1.6 Distribution in G.B.II and G.B.I.

1.4.1.7 Nature of land and village names in G.B.II and G.B.I.

1.5.1 Field names specifics and Nature of topography, Geography and fertility of soil.

1.5.1.1 Names reflecting the persence of salinity; Frequency and distribution. Salt production centres and contra

band areas noted by revenue officers.

1.6.1 Geographical divitions mentioned in Sangham woprks reflected in specifics of field names, paala, mulla,

neytal, kuRunji or kuRucci and marutam - Distribution in Geographical belts.

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1.6.1.2 Neytals etc - Significance of the distribution. Distribution table.

1.7 Distribution of toponym, tonTi, unTi, kooli, kuuTal,and mokkam. Importance of thes toponyms.

1.7.1 Distribution of tonTi and its variants.

1.7.1.1 Frequency of tonTi etc in the three Geographycal belts.

1.7.1.2 Distribution of tonTi in 43. CHERUVANNUR and nature of the toponym.

1.7.1.3 Field names with toponym tonTi.

1.7.1.4 Distribution of unTi.

1.7.1.5 The name KATALUNDI - Different variants.

1.7.1.6 unTi, HoonDy and vandy.

1.7.1.7 Geographical indications seen in tonTi and unTi.

1.7.2 kooli, Distribution of toponym in complexes in Groups and in Geographical belts.

1.7.2.1 Distribution of kooli and kooTi.

1.7.2.2 Location of distribution of kooTi,Toponym kkoti.

1.7.2.3 Hydronimic nature of kooli,kooTi and kooti.

1.7.2.4-5 kooTi and its meaning in Tamil.

1.7.2.6 Higher frequency on the river banks and coast.

1.7.2.7 kooli distribution related to a route leading to tamil naadu.

1.7.2.8 other pecularities in the distribution of kooli.

1.7.2.9 Hydronimic nature of tonTi and kooli.

1.7.2.10 Dencity lower in KUTATTAI area.

1.7.2.11 Probable direction of spreading of kooli.

1.7.2.12 kooli and tamil speaking communities in PALUR complex.

1.7.2.13 Trade routes and water ways. Connecting links of PALUR to Tamil nadu.

1.7.2.14 kooli in kaaveeri delta and toponym kooli in the taluk.

1.7.3 kuuTal and mokkam. Topographical features of the river system reflected in toponyms.

1.7.3.1 Distribution and frequency of kuuTal and mokkam

1.7.3.2 mokkam and kuuTal - six types of junctions.

1.7.3.3 mokkam and mukkam - Variants of kuuTal and mokkam.

1.7.4 Names of rivers, streams and canals - Names seen in settlement areas.

1.7.4.1 koorappula and various names of the river in different areas.

1.7.4.1.1 agalappula and its different names.

1.7.4.1.2 puNNuuR pula and its different names.

1.7.4.2 caaliyaaR and its different names.

1.7.4.3 Kallaipula and its different names.

1.7.4.4 Iruvalannippula and its different names.

1.7.4.5 ceRupula and its different names.

1.7.4.6 kaTalunTippula and its different names.

1.7.4.7 Canolly canal.

1.7.4.8 Names of river and general features of naming of rivers.

1.8 Distribution of toponyms kaaTu, vaNam and kuRinni - their distribution in Geographical Belts, frequencies

and implications.

1.8.1 Forest ranges and toponyms kuricci, kaaTu, vanam.

1.8.2 vaNam and kaaTu distribution.

1.8.2.1 villagewise distribution and frequencies.

1.8.2.2 Cliff areas and distribution of generics reflective of forest.

1.9 Generics indicative of marshes and different type of soil.

1.9.1 cali - Distribution of the toponym. village name caaliyam and river name caaliyaaR.

1.9.2 veppu - Distribution of the toponym and village name BEYPORE.

1.9.3 Toponyms ceer, puuli, mannu, caral and manal.

1.9.3.1 CeeR and puuli - Distribution details.

1.9.3.2 Distribution details of mannu, manal, caral.

1.9.3.3 Names indicative of colour of the soil.

CHAPTER P-II RESOURCES OF THE TALUK

2.1 Climatic conditions and the formation of the peculiar Georaphical features of Kozhikode.

2.1.1 Formation of vast marshes -Swamps- Saline, backwaters, excessively watered lands. Rain fall.

2.1.2 Natural environment indicated by the physical features of the Geographical belts.

2.1.3 Caaliyaar- flowing along the boundaries of the three G.B’s.

2.1.4 Kallai River mouth.

2.1.5 Other river mouth.

2.1.6 Distribution of elevated areas and low lying areas.

2.1.7 Cliff formations along the coast of Malabar.

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2.1.8 Influence of climate in topography.

2.1.9 The semi circular cliff around NAGARAM complex and the climate. Gap formation in the cliff area.

2.1.10 Natural port and its peculiarities.

2.1.11 Storms are very few- Reason.

2.1.12 Heavy rain fall.

2.1.13 Heavy and untimely rainfall and influence on topography.

2.1.14 Water and wind.

2.1.15 Slope of the land.

2.1.16 Salinity of the soil in G.B. IIIand II.

2.2 Challeges of the habitat and paddy cultivation, Tendency to over come the challeges reflected.

2.2.1 Generics indicative of the challenges to habitat ; paaTi, puNam, paLLiyaaLi, kuNi,eeri, kuLam, ciRa and

caalu: Distribution and frequencies.

2.2.2 paaTi, a generic closely associated with kaaTu. Distribution in the three Geographical belts and in villages.

2.2.3 puNam a generic indicative of irregular cultivation. Distribution, frequency and other details. Type of

cultivation from and other details given in revenue records.

2.2.4 PuNam and its relation to kaaTu. Distribution details.

2.2.5 PaLLiyaaLi-A generic indicative of wet land and a mode of cultivation. Its distribution and frequencies.

2.2.6 KuNi- A generic indicative of nature of land and land transformations. Distribution and frequencies.

2.3 Generics indicative of natural paddy cultivation; pulam. kanTom, vayal and paaTom. Distribution and

frequencies.

2.3.1 Frequencies of these generics to total number of garden land generics. Distribution in all three belts.

2.4. D- Area and other details supplied by Revenuerecords regarding paddy cultivation.

2.5 Irrigational methods reflected in names. Toponyms eeri. kuLam, caalu. kali and ciRa.

2.5.1 River banks and low lying areas- cash crop cultivation.

2.5.2 Intrusion of salinity in high land areas.

2.5.3 Traditional irrigational methods.

2.5.4 Kulam- A toponym reflecting storage of water for irrigational and other purposes.

2.5.5 Comparison of eeri, caalu and kali- the specific meanings related to them.

2.5.6 Kali and kai, peculiarities of distribution .

2,5.7 Caalu. Peculiarities of distribution . eeri and peculiarities of distribution.

2.5.8 eeri- Distribution in hillocks and upper table lands.

2.5.9 Supporting evidences from revenue records revealing the need of non saline irrigational water.

2.5.10 kuLam and ciRa- The significancs of these toponyms. Their distribution.

2.5.11 Observations regarding the fertility, paddy cultivation, chalenges to habitat methods to overcome the

challenges and irrigational systems.

2.6 Specifics indicative of challenges of habitat and paddy cultivation. puNam, punca, muntakan and mooTan.

2.6.1 Field names related to puNam.

2.6.2 Field names related to punca, viruppu, munTakaN, mooTaN.

2.7 Field names related to agriculture in general.

2.8 Analysis of paddy cultivation methods and Garden land cultivation system in the taluk.

2.8.1 Comparison of production of paddy in the taulk with other taluks.

2.8.2 Land Utilisation revealed by place name generics.

2.8.3 Generics indicative of Habitational sites and other types of generics.

2.8.4 Land utilisation reflected in the generics related to topography.

2.8.5 Topographical toponyms in complexes and groups.

2.8.6 Un-accounted areas- Generics and specifics of names.

2.8.7 Land utilised for other purposes.

2.8.8 Vayal, paaTom etc. generics related to profitable paddy cultivation.

2.9 Flora reflected in names. Food crops and forest products.

2.9.1 Food crops- paddy, other food crops, cash crops etc.

2.9.1.1 Production of paddy- Frequency of specifics and paddy cultivation.

2.9.1.2 Production of paddy - Supporting data from census reports.

2.9.1.3 Production of paddy - Supporting data from District Gazetteers.

2.9.1.4 Import and Export details- Supporting evidences.

2.9.1.5 Unprofitable paddy cultivation- Observations of District Gazeteers.

2.9.1.6 Supporting data supplied by other Reports.

2.9.2 Production of other food crops and cash crops.

2.9.2.1 Cereals and millets %of the Flora reflected in names and other details.

2.9.2.2 Distribution of the item in Geographical belts.

2.9.2.3 Supporting evidences from Revenue Records.

2.9.3 Vegetables, Details from place name specifics.

2.9.3.1 Supporting evidences from Revenue records.

2.9.4 Fresh fruits- Details from place name specifics.

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2.9.4.1 Details of each item given in tables.

2.9.4.2 Dried fruits- Details from names.

2.9.5.1 Details given in table.

2.9.5.2 Supporting details from Revenue Records.

2.9.6 Oil seeds- Details from place names.

2.9.6.1 Details given in tables.

2.9.6.2 Supporting details from Revenue Records.

2.9.6.3 Import and Export details of oil seeds- Supporting evidences.

2.9.7 Plantation crops. Details from toponyms.

2.9.8 Condition and spices. Details given in Revenue records

2.9.8.1 Details available from names

2.9.8.2 Supporting evidences from Revenue Records.

2.10 Forest produces. Details regarding the item

2.10.1 Medicinal Flora. Details from names.

2.10.2 Trees of various types. Details from names.

2.11 Flora indicatring tanning and dyes

2.12 Flora indicating miscellaneous production.

2.13 Miscellaneous shrubs.

2.14 Comparative table showing details of production.

2.15 Observations based on comparison and representation of the production in graph on the data collected

from names. Items of Export to Indian ports and Foreign ports supplied by Revenue records.

2.16 Details regarding total commercial production, consumption and surplus- supporting evidences from

Revenue records. Importance of Kozhikode taluk.

2.17 Mineral Resources. General observations.

2.17.1 Natural oil- ennappaaTom fields.

2.17.2 Names indicative of the availability of Gold, details and supporting evidences. Gold mines in the District.

2.17.3 Names indicative of availability of iron. Supporting evidences from early historical references evidences

from Revenue records.

2.18 Other natural resources. Lime shell, salt, precious stones, ceramics etc.

2.18.1 Lime shell- Names and supporting evidences.

2.18.2 Salt, Kanni, paTanna etc. Names and supporting evidences. Details of Distribution.

2.18.3 Precious stones and laterite etc stones. Destribution of names. other supporting evidences.

2.18.4 Ceramics and Tiles. Details of availability of clay reflected in names. Other supporting evidences.

2.19 Fauna reflected in place names.

2.19.1 Types of fauna reflected in field names.

2.19.2-3 Distribution of fauna in Geographical belts.

2.19.4 Distribution of frequencies of Funa.

2.19.5 Naming practice and fauna.

CHAPTER-III GROWTH OF SETTLEMENTS

3.1 Place names indicative of megaliths.

3.1.1 Archaeological evidences of South India

3.1.2 Archaeological evidences of Kozhikode District. Names related to Archaeological monuments and the

location of monuments pointed out by Robert Sewell.

3.1.3 Grave sites Names representing grave sites.

3.1.4 Different areas of Grave sites reflected in names.

3.1.5 Importance of names related to grave sites.

3.2 Distribution of names reflecting megalith in Geographical belts. Megaliths, settlements of aboriginal tribe,

uuR settlements , geographical names mentioned in Sangam Literature, Fishermen and potters and

occupational classes etc.

3.2.1 Different types of grave sites reflected in names peculiarities of distribution and Frequencies.

3.2.2 Names of tribes and low caste people. Distribution detailes

3.2.3 Observation on the distribution of megaliths and tribal settlements.

3.3 Distribution of the generic uuR.

3.3.1 General distribution of uuR

3.3.2 Grave sites and nomadic people.

3.3.3 Settlements in the north eastern and south western halves of the taluk.

3.3.4 uuR, puNam, paati and eeri- Distribution.

3.3.5 uuR generics and settled life.

3.3.6 neytaluuR, puttuuR, muttuuR, nalluuR and paaluuR.

3.3.7 Peculiarities of distribution.

3.4.1 Names indicative of geographical division of Sangam period and relations to settlement.

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3.5.1 Settlements of fishermen, potters etc.

3.6,1 Non-aryan elements reflected in place names.

3.6.2 Detailed classification and tables.

3.6.3-6 Burial grounds, lakes. tanks, streams, nonaryan local

3.7.1 Distribution in coastal complexes.

3.8.1 Aryan influence in place names- Distribution tables.

3.9.1 Distribution of Brahmin settlements- tables

3.9.2 Aryan culture and Brahmin settlements.

3.9.3 Distribution of different classes of names

3.9.4 Distribution in coastal complexes.

3.10 Settlements of Brahmin and temple communities.

3.10.1 Distribution of mannalam,puram, iiswaram, taLi and maNa.

3.10.2 Distribution in Geographical belts.

3.10. 3 Land ,occupants and Brahmin settlements.

3.10.4 Ownership of lands- Details from Revenue records.

3.10.5 Distribution of uuraaLers in G.B.I, II and III

3.10.6 Early Brahmin settlements -Names related to them seen in the taluk.

3.10.7 mannalam settlements and patterns.

3.10.8 Types of names indicative of Aryan contacts.

3.10.9 Nature of Brahmin settlements in Kerala.

3.10.10 Generic indicative of Brahmin settlements.

3.10.11 iiswaram and puNam.

3.10.12 maNa

3.11 Distribution of mannalam.

3.11.1 Classification of field names with mannalam and their peculiarities.

3.11.2 Names of Brahmin settlements seen earlier periods and in the revenue settlement period.

3.11.3 Distribution of different classes of Brahmin families in Geographical belts.

3.11.4 uuraaLans and their family names.

3.11.5 Brahmin individuasl families as uuraaLars.

3.11.6 mannalam and mannalacceeri

3.11.7 Social and cultural peculiarities reflected in specifics of field names with mannalam generics.

3.11.8 Specifics as identification marks of Brahmin individual settlements.

3.11.9 Brahmin individual settlements-Naming practice.

3.11. 10 Details of mannalam- inscriptional evidences

3.11.11 Personal names and mannalam- inscriptional evidences.

3.11.12 Evidences from Zamorins palace records and Revenue Records.

3.11.13 Village names and field names with mannalam generics.

3.11.14 Two early patterns of usages of mannalam generics.

3.11.15 mannalam, mangalam and mankalam- origin

3.11.16 mannalam-a toponyam seen in karnataka

3.11.17 Brahmin migration and settlements- early phases.

3.11.18 Early Brahmin Grama settlements.

3.11.19 Distribution of Brahmin individual settlements in the taluk- Temple centered nature etc

3.11.20 mannalam- a toponym differentiating Brahmin Grama settlements and Brahmin individual settlements-

Tables related to distribution and different classes of mannalams, Frequencies etc.

3.12 samketam settlements and their significancies.

3.12.1 Fertile paddy fields, G.B.I and Brahmin settlements.

3.13 taLi settlements.

3.13.1 significance of taLi settlements.

3.13.2 taLi settlements in G.B.I and uuraaLaRs.

3.13.3 taLi settlements near complexes- G.B.I

3.13.4 taLi and Samketam

3.14 Pattern of Brahmin settlements and temple communities as temple complexes.

3.14.1 temple complexes in G.B.III and the reason for higer frequency of them.

3.15 Settlements of commercial communities and artisan Groups.

3.15.1 Frequency and Distribution of commercial communities’ settlements.

3.15.2 Frequency and distribution of artisan settlements.

3.16 Distribution of toponyms pai, paLLi, puttalattu and maTom.

3.16.1 maTom, yoogi, and cooyi

3.16.2 maTom, caakyaR, nampyaaR, vaaryaR etc.

3. 16. 3 maTom and paTTaR.

3.16.4 Other types of maToms.

3.16.5 Distribution of cluster of toponym paLLi, puttalattu and pai.

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3.16.6 peculiarities of the cluster and relation to some toponym like Dharma, pattiNietc.

3.16.7 Toponyms related to Budhistic ways of life.

3.16.8-10 Toponyms probably related to Buddha and Jaina religions.

3.17. Other migrants from the main land.

3.17.1 tuLuvaR, empRaan, konkan.

3.17.2 Distribution peculiarities.

3.17.3 konkaNs.

3.17.4 Gujarathi settlements.

3.18 Foreign migrants.

3.18.1 Arabs and Sheiks, Distribution

3.18.2 Chinese Settlements, Distribution

3.18.3 Muslims settlements, Distribution of Caste names and personal names etc. reflected in place names.

3.18.4 Portuguese settlements..

3.18.5 Christian settlements.

3.18.6 French settlements.

3.18.7 English settlements

3.18.8 Names of different offices distributed in the taluk reflected in names- Influence of languages.

3.18.9 Anglicization of names.

3.18.10 Names indicative of different communities.

3.19 A few names indicative of different communities.

3.20 Miscellaneous types of names.

CHAPTER IV- URBANISATION AND TRADE EXCHANGE SYSTEM IN THE TALUK.

4.1.0 Physical environment and human settlements.

4.1.1 Urban and rural- features.

4.1.2 Site and situation.

4.1.3 The farming elements and trade centres.

4.2.1 Calicut and Foreign trade.

4.2.2 Urban and rural areas in the taulk. The south western and north western halves.

4.2.3 Settlement of different classes in the halves-A comparison.

4.2.4-5 General observations based on comparative table Southern Western half and North Eastern half.

4.2.6 Settlements of castes not related to commercial activities.

4.3 Settlements and population.

4.4.0 The three Groups- Closer analysis.

4.4.1 THAZHEKKOD Group specializations.

4.4.1.2 Toponym indicative of specializations in THAZHEKKOD

4.4.1.1 Selection of toponyms indicative of Specializations

4.4.1.3 Indications of clusters of administrative units.

4.4.1.4-6 Analysis of specializations in the group.

4.4.2 NATUVALLUR group -specialisations .

4.4.2.1 Toponyms indicative of specializations .

4.4.2.2-3 Analysis of specializations .

4.4.2.4 Toponyms indicative of clusters administrative units.

4.4.2.5-8 Analysis of specializations .

4.4.2.9 Higher level of specialisations compared to THAZHEKKOD.

4.4.2.10 Supporting evidences from Revenue Records.

4.4.3.0-1 Toponyms suggestive of specializations. TAMARASSERY GROUP.

4.4.3.2 Toponyms indicative of clusters of administrative units.

4.4.3.3-5 Analysis of specialisations.

4.4.4.1 Service centres : concept and their nature pointed out by urban geographers.

4.4.4.2 Identification of service centres in the taluk .

4.4.4.3 Distribution of pattern of service centers pointed out by urban geographers.

4.4.4.4 Service centres in the area compared to the patterns shown by urban geographers.

4.5.1 KUNNAMANGALAM Group-semi urban centres. Typonyms suggestive of specializations.

4.5.2 Analysis of specialisations, toponyms indicative of clusters of administrative units.

4.5.3 Analysis of specialisations- Distribution of the semi-urban centers - Pattern suggested by urban

Geographers.

4.5.4 Tributory farming areas around the urban centres.

4.5.4.1 Surplus production and cities .

4.5.4.2 The central places and urban centres .

4.5.4.3 Local variation from the general principles noted by urban geographers.

4.5.4.4 Analysis of the central place in the area.

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4.5.4.5 Population and other factors.

4.6 KUNNAMANGALAM Group -A chain of villages.

4.6.1 Village 35- KUNNAMANGALAM - Its locational peculiarities.

4.6.2 Trade-route connection of the village.

4.6.2.1 Trade route connections of Kunnamangalam Centre.

4.6.3 KUNNAMANGALAM and storage centres.

4.6.3.1-2 Details of distribution of storage centre.

4.6.3.3. KUNNAMANGALAM . Importing items, distance from other centres etc.

4.6.3.4 Connections to PUTHIYANGADI Complex.

4.6.3.5 KUNNAMANGALAM -The central place scheme.

4.6.3.6 Cost of distance and central palce scheme in the taluk.

4.6.3.7 Cities of three categories - the second category reflected in the taluk.

4.6.3.8 KUNNAMANGALAM and the second category of cities. The fish net work pattern.

4.6.3.9 Fish-network pattern of semi urban centres.

4.7 Communication system reflected in toponyms.

4.7.1 Earlier trade routes and inter- connecting conveyance system in the taluk reflected in Toponyms.

4.7.1.1 Indication of the rest houses etc. Their distribution .

4.7.2 Early trade routes described in Foreign notices.

4.7.2.1-5 Early routes described in Zanorins palace records .

4.7.2.6 Large highways to accommodate kings parades.

4.7.2.7 Roads and Highways -Mysorean interlude.

4.7.3.1 Importance of foot -paths.

4.7.3.2 Tippus pioneering work- construction of roads.

4.7.3.3 Chronological details regarding roads- Not available.

4.7.3.4 Directions of the roads- Not easy to reconstruct.

4.7.3.5 Bazaar roads in the NAGARAM and connections to other roads entering the area.

4.7.3.6 Buchanan’s description of roads and trade routes.

4.7.3.7 Cart stands and rest houses.

4.7.3.8 Carriers reflected in names.

4.7.4 KaTavu, paalam, paataaR etc. Distribution of rest houses, storages etc. in NAGARAM .

4.7.5 High frequency of the items in NAGARAM .

4.7.6.1 Details of Tippu new roads and connection of NAGARAM to hinterland areas.

4.7.6.2 THAMARASSERY- A centre of convergence of Roads constructed byTippu sulttan.

4.7.6.3 River connection and immediate hinterlands.

4.7.6.4 Akalappula etc connection to northern and southern regions in other districts.

4.7.6.5 Conveyance systems- connections to nearly 100 miles around the port.

4.7.6.6 100 miles of navegation specility in the Inland areas.

4.7.6.7 Tolls and their indications.

4.7.6.8 Importance of the canals.

4.7.6.9 Canals around the calicut port.

4.8 Urban complexes of the Taluk.

4.8.1 Indentification of complexes and specialisations.

4.8.2 Specialisations in diversity ; above the need of the rural peasant community.

4.8.3 KUTATTAI and PALUR complexes

4.8.3.1 KUTATTAI complex specialisations.

4.8.3.2-6 Analysis of specialisations.

4.8.4 PALUR complex.

4.8.4.1 Specialisations in the complex.

4.8.4.2-3 Analysis of specialisations.

4.8.4.4 Distribution of administrative units in KUTATTAI and PALUR complexes.

4.8.5.0-3 KUTATTAI and PALUR complexes.

4.8.5.4-5 PALUR complex. Higher specialisations compared to KUTATTAI accounted.

4.8.6 Coastal complexes - comparison.

4.8.6.1-1 VALAYANATU area and number of village - situation.

4.8.6.1-2 Factors of specialisations - VALAYANADU, aalcavatom and annaaTi.

4.8.6.1.3-4 VALAYANADU - kaavu and Zamorins-calicut

4.8.6.1.5 VALAYANATU -Historical references. Zamorins palaces.

4.8.6.1.6 Coastal complexes-comparison.

4.8.6.1.1 VALAYANATU area and number of villages- situation.

4.8.6.1.2 Factors of specialisations- VALAYANADU, aalcavaTTom and annaaTi.

4.8.6.1.3-4 VALAYANADU kaavu and Zamoxins-calicut.

4.8.6.1.5 VALAYANATU - Historical references. Zamorins palaces.

4.8.6.1.6 Name of historical importance- VALAYANATU.

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4.8.6.2 KATALUNDI Complex.

4.8.6.2.1 Situations- Area, number of villages etc.

4.8.6.2.2 Factors of specialisations - coastal concentration.

4.8.6.2.3 Village 36-E, specialisations.

4.8.6.2.4 Village 43,specialisations.

4.8.6.2.5 Historical antiquity.

4.8.6.3 PUTHIYANGADI complex.

4.8.6.3.1 Situations, Number of villages area etc.

4.8.6.3.2 Factors of specialisations -peculiar river system.

4.8.6.3.3 ELATHUR specialisations.

4.8.6.3.4 PERUMTHIRUTHI:specialisations.

4.8.6.3.5 THALAKKULATHUR specialisations.

4.8.6.3.6-8 Historical importance- Vaso-De-Gamas landing.

4.8.7 VALAYANADU, KATALUNDI, PUTHIYANGADI complexes specialisations- comparison.

4.8.7.1 Situational common features.

4.8.7.2-3 Differences in funtional structure VALAYANADU and KATALUNDI.

4.8.7-3-1 ParappanaaTu palaces, Tippu port,chaliyam port.

4.8.7.3.2 tondy and ophir.

4.8-7.4 PUTHIYANGADI- Differences. Compared to KATALUNDI Complex.

4.8.7.5 Topography, Geography, river months and fertillity of soil .

4.9 Ports and their importance in coastal complexes.

4.9.1 Calicut port and other coastal complexes.

4.9.1.1 Sub- ports around Calicut port.

4.9.1.2 Principal ports of Malabar- Modern.

4.9.1.3 Subordinate ports of principal ports in Malabar.

4.9.1.4 Early ports of historical importance on the coast.

4.9.2 tuRa distributed in complexes and nature of the subordinate ports.

4.9.3 Meaning of the term kaappaaTu - New interpretation.

4.9.3.1 Kappal katavu and kaappaaTu .

4.9.3.2 Distrubtion of the toponym kaapu.

4.9.3.2.1 kappu and waste lands.

4.9.3.3 VasCo- De Gama’s arrival .

4.9.3.4 Gamas Landings- kappaaTu and pantalayini

4.9.3.5 Toponyms pandal and pantalaayini.

4.9.3.6 paantal and marshes.

4.9.3.7 kaappaaT - A minor port of koovilkanTi.

4.9.3.8 Minor ports at Elattur and putiyannaTi.

4.9.4 Kallai port.

4.9.5 Beypore port.

4.9.5.1 Import and Export situation - Beypore.

4.9.5.2 Kadalundi port- A subordinate port of Beypore.

4.9.6 Calicut- surrounded by subordinate port.

4.10. 0-9 Potentials and products available in the NAGARAM Complex- Calicut port. Toponymical evidences,

metals, fishing, forest produces, clay industry, small scale industries, coir industry, coconut products, soft

wood industries veneers. Handloom production etc.

4.10.10 Exchanges of produces through fairs, festivels and markets.

4.11 Economic base of the cities- Urban Geographers views.

4.12 Toponym naaTu and its significance -Distrubtion of naaTu Generics in the taluk.

4.12.1 Specifics related to the term naaTu .

4.12.2 Distrubtion of naaTu in complexes and groups.

4.12.3 Frequency of naaTu- Higher in complexes.

4.12.4 Later urbanisation and naaTu- Relation to population density.

4.12.5 naatu and later towns, muncipality and corporation.

4.12.6 Non-muncipal towns in the taluk and naaTu.

4.12. 7 G.B.III and naaTu- comparison with uuR.

4.13 Hierarchical structure of specilised centres.

4.13.1 Deatils of the structure of the centres identified in the taluk.

4.13.2 Urban and rural- differentiation- Hamlet, village and other concepts of the west.

4.13.3 Urbanisation- Process of moving from rural to city life- A change in how people live.

4.14.0.1 Rural situations reflected in 61 villages of the three groups - THAZHEKKOD, NATUVALLUR and

TAMARASSERI. uuR settlements and their distribution in the area. Pressure of settlements and density of

settlements.

4.14.2 Distribution of megaliths, uuRs etc. in the 109 villages on the North Eastern half of the taluk.

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4.14.3 Megalithe and uur settlements. Ratio.

4.14.4 Evolution of naaTu, uuR settlements and urbanisation.

4.15 Infra structure of Villages in the hinterland.

4.15.1 General observations made by scholars on the structure of a typical kerala village.

4.15.2 Nucleated village and village boundaries.

4.15.3 Distribution of settlements occupational classes.

4.15.3.1 Distribution of parayas and pulayas.

4.15.3.2-3 Distribution of skilled workers Blacksmits, and carpenters.

4.15.3.4 Distribution of Non-aryan deities and uuR. Ratio.

4.15.3.5 Distribution of uuR and settlements occupational groups. Analysis of distribution maps.

4.15.3.5.1 single, isolated village.

4.15.3.5.2-3 Settlements of occupational classes in clusters, distribution seen irrespective of the Revenue boundaries.

4.15.3.5.4 Clusters as outer layer of temple complexes.

4.15.3.5.5 uuR nucleated clusters.

4.15.4 uuR Settlements temple complexes and administrative units.

4.15.4.1 Distribution of temple complexes and administrative units.

4.15.4.2 Details of frequencies etc. of temple communities.

4.15.4.3 Shrines of non-aryan type and temple complexes: comparison of distribution.

4.15.4.4 mannalam settlements.

4.15.4.4.1 uuR in the middile part of G.B.I, distribution pecularities.

4.15.4.4.2 importance to the paddy cultivation areas.

4.15.4.4.3 settlers of temple complexes- Tendancy to retain uuR Generics.

4.15.4.4.4 uuR aaLaR - the term and topnym uuR

4.15.4.5 Kalam, kalari and kooTTa.

4.15.4.5.1 commercial settlements in clusters Distribution.

4.15.4.5.2 Scatted nature of clusters of uuR and settlements. Occupational classes in complexes.

4.16 Genaral observations of the infra structure of a village. Scatted nature-Clusters- Isolated uuRssignificance

of temple complexes and occupational settlements in clusters- Administrative units clusters of

kalam, kalari etc.

4.17 Distribution of uuR and habitational generics in the District.

4.17.1 General observations.

4.17.2 General Nature of settlements in the four taluks.

4.17.3 Occupational clanes and uuR settlements.

4.18 Ceeri, uuR, marutam and early primary urbanisation in the area.

4.18.1 City and village - concepts during early Sangam age.

4.18.2 Early urbanisation tendancies and marutham tracts.

4.18.3 Distribution of marutam in the area.

4.18.4 Ceeri and relation to marutham.

4.18.5 marutam settlements and fertile paddy cultivating areas.

4.18.6 ceeri and non-agriculturists settlements, in groups and complexes.

4.18.7 Ratio between marutham and ceeri.

4.18.8 Spatial distribution of marutam, uuR and ceeri.

4.18.9 Role of redistribution of centres.

4.18.10 Limitation of source materials.

4.18.11 Co-existance of marutham, uuR and ceeris.

4.18.12 Shifting of centers.

4.19 Hierachiveal classes of trade centres in the hinterland, inter relations of port and hinterland.

4.19.1 Differentiation refected in the functional character.

4.19.2 NAGARAM complex as a port town.

4.19.3 The port and its divisions on the basis of port geography.

4.19.4 Immediate Hinterlands of calicut and natural port.

4.19.5 Facilities of calicut and natural port.

4.19.6 Site of a port and the situation.

4.19.7 The human factor of a port.

4.19.8 Centripetal and centrifugal forces of a port.

4.19.9 The site attraction, functional convenience and functional magnetism.

4.19.10 Accumulation of commercial factors.

4.19.11 Calicut port- largest port in the 13th and 14th centuries.

4.19.12 Resources of the taluk and potentials.

4.19.13 Foreigners in the early period who visited MALABAR.

4.19.14 Foreland areas - Details from foreign notices.

4.19.15 Maritime space.

4.19.16 Port has to be studied on the basis of relational patterns.

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4.20 Political divisions of medieval period and hiterland area.

4.20.1 Hierarchical system distributed in the different political divisions.

4.20.2 Formation of district.

4.20.3 KURUMBRANAD taluk and political divisions; KADATTANAD taluk and other areas.

4.20.4 Territorial names and three classes of names.

4.20.4.1 Territorial names -Siginificance lost.

4.20.4.2 Territorial names - Some siginificance exists.

4.20.4.3 Territorial names -till in use.

4.20.5 Substituted names for territories and revenue divisions- Rearrangements.

4.21.1 KUTANATA and PULINATU.

4.21.1. Geographical peculiarities and names.

4.21.2 KOLATTUNATU.

4.21.2.1 KOLATTUNATU - Territorial names .

4.21.2.2.1 Meaning of the toponym- Different suggestions.

4.21.2.2.2 KORAPPULA and KOLATTUNATU .

4.21.2.2.3 Anglisised forms of the name.

4.21.3 KATATTANATU.

4.21.3.1 Different forms of the name.

4.21.3.2 Different interpretation of the name.

4.21.3.3 KATATTUVAY -A geographical name.

4.21.3.4 Folk stories related to KATATTANATU.

4.21.3.5 Sanskritised forms of the name.

4.21.3.6 Anglisised forms.

4.21.4 KURUMBRANATU -Different interpretation .

4.21.4.1 Anglisised forms.

4.21.5 POLAVAY.

4.21.5.1 Meaning of the name.

4.21.6 PAYYANATU.

4.21.6.1 PAYYURMALA and POYANATU.

4.21.6.2 Pay or payya- Toponyms.

4.21.6.3 Pay- Meanings in different languages.

4.21.6.4 pooyanaaTu.

4.21.6.5 EivaR naaTu and payyuR mala.

4.21.6.6 pe and pay- Sinhalese relations;kulifo.

4.21.6.7 Buddhistic influence in the area.

4.21.6.8 Stories related to pandavas.

4.21.6.9 Kolli- A toponym seen in sinhala language.

4.21.6.10 Kandi-A toponym seen in sinhala language.

4.21.6.11 Probability of inter- relation of place names- Malabar and Ceylon.

4.21.6.12 Palaya and paya.

4.21.6.13 Observations on the toponym pai etc.

4.21.7 PAYYURMALA different forms of the name.

4.21. 7.1 Observations on the name payyuR mala.

4.21.8 KILAKKUMPURAM and VATAKKUMPURAM.

4.21.8.1 Early forms.

4.21.8.2 Distribution of the area around Calicut Rajadhani.

4.21.9 POLANATU

4.21.9.1 Historical Significance.

4.21.10 PURAKILANATU different forms of the name.

4.21.11 ERNAD different forms of the name. .

4.21.11.1 Some interpretations.

4.21. 12 KOLIKKOTU- different forms of the name.

4.21.12.1 KOKKOLIKKOTU

4.21.12.3 Names discussed and places identified under KoolikkoTu.

4.21.12.4 VELAPURAM-Its siginificance.

4.21.12.5 Different forms of the toponym KOLIKKOTU.

4.21.12.5.1 Change of la to ya.

4.21.12.5.2 Structural parts of the name.


4.21. 12. 5.3 Different derivations.

4.21.13 PUNTURA- Different forms and meanings.

4.21.14 VIKARAMAPURAM.

4.21.15 MALABAR-Various forms.

4.21.15.1 Structure of the name.

4.21.15. 2 Interpretation of the name.

CHAPTER V. THE MEDIEVAL CITY COMPLE-A TOPONYMICAL RECONSTRUCTION.

5.0 Historical background of Calicut city and urbanisation -Importance.

5.0.1 Specialisations and historical geography- Area under discussion.

5.0.2 Important source materials.

5.0.2.1-2 Zamorins palace records- Rediscovered and their importance, paimashi Records etc.


5.0.2.3 Medieval silpa texts.

5.0.2.4 Urban Geographical methods.

5.0.2.5 Identification of NAGARAM complex , its commercial structure, port town..

5.0.3 Different aspects discussed.

5.0.4 Geometrical figures, charts, maps etc.

5.1 Specialisations and Historical Geography.

5.1.1 Distribution of artisan and commercial communities.

5.1.2 Density of settlements of Artisans and commercial communities.

5.1.2.1 Major settlements of commercial communities.

5.1.2.2 ceTTi Streets- Historical references.

5.1.2.3 iTomkai ceTTi’s and valamkai ceTTis.

5.1.2.4 caaliya streets- Historical references

5.1.3 Other importance streets.

5.1.3.1 maaNavikRamaN teru, Sreekrishnan teru.

5.1.3.2 puttan teru and probable JaiNa, Buddha settlements, and vastusastra indications.

5.1.3.3 Kalavaanibhatteru.

5.1.3.4 teennakkuTu teru.

5.1.3.5 puuvaanibhatteru.

5.1.3.5.1 puuvaLappukaL.

5.1.3.5.2 puuntuRa.

5.1.3.6 ChineseStreets.

5.1.3.6.1 CliNatteru.

5.1.3.6.2 Sankupaalam kanTi.

5.1.3.6.3-4 Mahuan’s refreances.

5.1.3.6.5 logal and Gundert: Remarks on CliNatteru.

5.1.3.6.6 Portuguese fort and chinese street.

5.1.3.6.7 VennattaaN paRampu and portuguese fort.

5.1.3.6.8 Location of portuguese fort .

5.1.3.6.9 Provisions available at Calicut port .

5.1.3.6.10 Factors attracted the foreign trade.

5.1.3.6.11 Albuquerq and first portuguese fort at Calicut.

5.1.3.6.12 French and Danish settlements at Calicut.

5.1.3.6.13 Gujarathi, PaTTani and Vairagi settlements .

5.1.3.6.14 Settlements or Arabi Traders .

5.1.4 Rest Houses and Ware houses.

5.1.4.1 Choultries and satRans -Distribution .

5.1.4.2 Ware Houses- Distribution.

5.1.4.2.1 Salt storage centres- Distribution.

5.1.4.2.2 Ware Houses- Unidentified.

5.1.4.3 Tax collection centres and Tolls.

5.1.4.3.1 Tolls etc.- Distribution.

5.1.4.3.2 taraku-A kind of Tax collection centre.

5.1.4.3.3 Port Accountants offices.

5.1.5 Whaffs, Ferries and handing places.

5.1.5.1 Distribution wharfts and ferries.

5.1.5.2 Distribution of landing places.

5.1.6 Big Bazaar.

5.1.7 Structural pattern of the city.

5.1.7.1 Nodal points of the pattern and functional importance .

5.2 Distribution of the administrative units and their functional importance.

5.2.1 VeeLaapuram, cuLLikkaaTu, vikRamapuram.

5.2.1.1 Traditional history and orgin of Calicut.

5.2.1.2 Calicut and Polanad .

5.2.1.3 ERanaaTu uTaiyavaR.

5.2.1.4 Toponyms suggestive of Traditional history.

5.2.1.5 Titiles used by zamorins of Calicut and Toponyms.

5.2.1.6 Identification of VeeLaapuram.

5.2.2 Fortress area of Zamorins.

5.2.2.1 Identification of kooTTappaRampukal- fort area.

5.2.2.2 Southern and Northern trenches.

5.2.2.3-6 References of the palace area in koolikkooTaN Gradhavari’s- Royal visists

5.2.2.7 Protective measures around the place and fortress kaLam, kaLari etc.

5.2.2.8 kaLam and kaLaris around the place, inside the fortress .

5.2.2.9 Distribution of protective measures .

5.2.3 Early palaces in the capital city .

5.2.3.1 Palace complex in the south Easterl part of the major palace .

5.2.3.2-10 Identification of palaces .

5.2.3.11 palace complex- a continuous settilment of zamorins family close to fortress .

5.2.4 Important administrative units .

5.2.4.1 Distribution pattern of kaLari and kooTTa .

5.2.4.2 Distribution of kaLari etc outside the city boudary.

5.2.4.3 Residence of high officials .

5.2.4.3.1 Distribution of the residences .

5.2.5 Temples and other religious centres.

5.2.6 Secter wise distribution of defferent settilments.

5.2.6.1 Different settilment and thier amenities .

5.2.6.2 Settilments aroud big bazaar .

5.2.6.3 Settilments of Hindus .

5.2.6.4 Settilments of High officials.

5.2.6.5 Isolated Settilments .

5.2.6.6 Toll Houses choultries etc location in relation to different Settilments .

5.2.6.7 Protective measures - Distribution in relation to Settilments.

5.2.6.8 Central Administration . Easten half of the city and Administrative central zone.

5.2.6.9 Commercial central zone and western half of the city- Differences of the zone compared to hinterland zones.

5.2.7 Co-existance of central Zones.

5.2.7.1 Administrative of central zone and commercial central zone.

5.2.7.2 Two components of commercial central zone.

5.2.7.3 Distribution of units of administrative central zone and commercial central zone.

5.3 Evolution of multiple nuclei.

5.3.1 Long distance trade and multiple nuclei.

5.3.2 Calicut and early cheras.

5.3.2.1 Calicut during 9th -13th centuries.

5.3.3 Early foreign contacts of the port- Mahodayapuram and Calicut.

5.3.3.1 Pling and Traders.

5.3.3.2 Arab Traders.

5.3.3.3 Vascode Gama and portuguese trade.

5.3.3.4 Death of the port at Cranganore.

5.3.3.5 Rise of Calicut port- 13th C.A.D. Refreences.

5.3.4 Establishment of a new capital at Calicut.

5.3.4.1 Early Nads in Malabar.

5.3.4.2 New stable Administrative system and Evolution of the port.

5.3.5 Stable Government and port.

5.3.5.1 Permanent settlements etc. Different factors of urbanisation.

5.3.5.2 Planning of cities etc. Trends seen in other places.

5.3.6 Classifications and functions of Calicut port.

5.3.6.1 Calicut port - A Transportation port.

5.3.7 Aspects of human settlements.

5.3.7.1 Urban settlements, size, function etc.

5.3.7.2 Site and situation of the settlements and Calicut.

5.3.7.3 Stable administration and Calicut.

5.3.7.4 Castle and fortress as nucleus- Calicut .

5.3.8 Safety and security of the Harbour- calicut.

5.3.8.1-3 Safety and security- calicut, Foreign notices.

5.3.9 Zamorins of Calicut- Their title etc.

5.3.9.1 Freedom and foreign zone- Calicut.

5.3.10 Freedom, foreign zone and port.

5.3.10.1 Historical development of a Free port.

5.3.11 Expansion of the hinterland and port.

5.3.11.1 Expansion of the hinterland-Aims of Zamorins.

5.3.11.2 Geographical and other peculiarities of Calicut port- Natural safety.

5.3.11.3 Historical reasons behind the rise of the port .

5.3.12 Central zone and focal points.

5.312.1 Coastal upper table land . Cliff area around it .

5.3.12.2 Structural frame work and central zone.

5.3.12.3 Concentration of a single function and of different functions- nodal points.

5.3.12.4 Distribution of centres of commercial activity in Calicut.

5.3.12.5 Wharfts, Ferries.

5.3.12.6 Different kinds of wharfts and ferries.

5.3.12.7 other landing places later periods.

5.3.12.8 Cammodities brought and storages.

5.3.12.9 Locational peculiarities of ware houses.

5.3.12.10 Zones of different commodities.

5.3.12.11 Ownership of the ware houses.

5.3.12.12 Rest houses etc.for different group of people

5.3.13 Centres of Institutions.

5.3.13.1 General features of the cities and the institutions and focal points.

5.3.13.2 Focal points and ferries etc.

5.3.13.3-4 Focal points and protective measures like kaLari and kooTTa.

5.3.13.5 Classfication of focal points.

5.3.14 Focal points and development of the central zone.

5.4.1 Principles of Urban Geography and cities.

5.4.2 Indian Vastussastra basis of cities.

5.4.2.1-4 Vasusastra suggestions and general features of calicut city.

5.5 Structural pattern of the settlements of functional groups and non- functional groups.

5.5.1 Zonal concept deities and calicut city.

5.5.2 Residential zones-North West zone and South West zone- Western half of the city.

5.5.2.1 Residential zones- Notrh west zone and north east zone- Eastern half of the city.

5.5.3 Industrial zones of a port town and Calicut.

5.5.3.1 Cloth industry at Calicut.


5.2.1 VeeLaapuram, cuLLikkaaTu, vikRamapuram.

5.2.1.1 Traditional history and orgin of Calicut.

5.2.1.2 Calicut and Polanad .

5.2.1.3 ERanaaTu uTaiyavaR.

5.2.1.4 Toponyms suggestive of Traditional history.

5.2.1.5 Titiles used by zamorins of Calicut and Toponyms.

5.2.1.6 Identification of VeeLaapuram.

5.2.2 Fortress area of Zamorins.

5.2.2.1 Identification of kooTTappaRampukal- fort area.

5.2.2.2 Southern and Northern trenches.

5.2.2.3-6 References of the palace area in koolikkooTaN Gradhavari’s- Royal visists

5.2.2.7 Protective measures around the place and fortress kaLam, kaLari etc.

5.2.2.8 kaLam and kaLaris around the place, inside the fortress .

5.2.2.9 Distribution of protective measures .

5.2.3 Early palaces in the capital city .

5.2.3.1 Palace complex in the south Easterl part of the major palace .

5.2.3.2-10 Identification of palaces .

5.2.3.11 palace complex- a continuous settilment of zamorins family close to fortress .

5.2.4 Important administrative units .

5.2.4.1 Distribution pattern of kaLari and kooTTa .

5.2.4.2 Distribution of kaLari etc outside the city boudary.

5.2.4.3 Residence of high officials .

5.2.4.3.1 Distribution of the residences .

5.2.5 Temples and other religious centres.

5.2.6 Secter wise distribution of defferent settilments.

5.2.6.1 Different settilment and thier amenities .

5.2.6.2 Settilments aroud big bazaar .

5.2.6.3 Settilments of Hindus .

5.2.6.4 Settilments of High officials.

5.2.6.5 Isolated Settilments .

5.2.6.6 Toll Houses choultries etc location in relation to different Settilments .

5.2.6.7 Protective measures - Distribution in relation to Settilments.

5.2.6.8 Central Administration . Easten half of the city and Administrative central zone.

5.2.6.9 Commercial central zone and western half of the city- Differences of the zone compared to hinterland zones.

5.2.7 Co-existance of central Zones.

5.2.7.1 Administrative of central zone and commercial central zone.

5.2.7.2 Two components of commercial central zone.

5.2.7.3 Distribution of units of administrative central zone and commercial central zone.

5.3 Evolution of multiple nuclei.

5.3.1 Long distance trade and multiple nuclei.

5.3.2 Calicut and early cheras.

5.3.2.1 Calicut during 9th -13th centuries.

5.3.3 Early foreign contacts of the port- Mahodayapuram and Calicut.

5.3.3.1 Pling and Traders.

5.3.3.2 Arab Traders.

5.3.3.3 Vascode Gama and portuguese trade.

5.3.3.4 Death of the port at Cranganore.

5.3.3.5 Rise of Calicut port- 13th C.A.D. Refreences.

5.3.4 Establishment of a new capital at Calicut.

5.3.4.1 Early Nads in Malabar.

5.3.4.2 New stable Administrative system and Evolution of the port.

5.3.5 Stable Government and port.

5.3.5.1 Permanent settlements etc. Different factors of urbanisation.

5.3.5.2 Planning of cities etc. Trends seen in other places.

5.3.6 Classifications and functions of Calicut port.

5.3.6.1 Calicut port - A Transportation port.

5.3.7 Aspects of human settlements.

5.3.7.1 Urban settlements, size, function etc.

5.3.7.2 Site and situation of the settlements and Calicut.

5.3.7.3 Stable administration and Calicut.

5.3.7.4 Castle and fortress as nucleus- Calicut .

5.3.8 Safety and security of the Harbour- calicut.

5.3.8.1-3 Safety and security- calicut, Foreign notices.

5.3.9 Zamorins of Calicut- Their title etc.

5.3.9.1 Freedom and foreign zone- Calicut.

5.3.10 Freedom, foreign zone and port.

5.3.10.1 Historical development of a Free port.

5.3.11 Expansion of the hinterland and port.

5.3.11.1 Expansion of the hinterland-Aims of Zamorins.

5.3.11.2 Geographical and other peculiarities of Calicut port- Natural safety.

5.3.11.3 Historical reasons behind the rise of the port .

5.3.12 Central zone and focal points.

5.312.1 Coastal upper table land . Cliff area around it .

5.3.12.2 Structural frame work and central zone.

5.3.12.3 Concentration of a single function and of different functions- nodal points.

5.3.12.4 Distribution of centres of commercial activity in Calicut.

5.3.12.5 Wharfts, Ferries.

5.3.12.6 Different kinds of wharfts and ferries.

5.3.12.7 other landing places later periods.

5.3.12.8 Cammodities brought and storages.

5.3.12.9 Locational peculiarities of ware houses.

5.3.12.10 Zones of different commodities.

5.3.12.11 Ownership of the ware houses.

5.3.12.12 Rest houses etc.for different group of people

5.3.13 Centres of Institutions.

5.3.13.1 General features of the cities and the institutions and focal points.

5.3.13.2 Focal points and ferries etc.

5.3.13.3-4 Focal points and protective measures like kaLari and kooTTa.

5.3.13.5 Classfication of focal points.

5.3.14 Focal points and development of the central zone.

5.4.1 Principles of Urban Geography and cities.

5.4.2 Indian Vastussastra basis of cities.

5.4.2.1-4 Vasusastra suggestions and general features of calicut city.

5.5 Structural pattern of the settlements of functional groups and non- functional groups.

5.5.1 Zonal concept deities and calicut city.

5.5.2 Residential zones-North West zone and South West zone- Western half of the city.

5.5.2.1 Residential zones- Notrh west zone and north east zone- Eastern half of the city.

5.5.3 Industrial zones of a port town and Calicut.